New Interpreter's Bible

Page 2 of 6 (115 items) < Previous 1 2 3 4 5 Next > ... Last »
This post has 114 Replies | 3 Followers

Posts 325
Steve Farson | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Nov 13 2013 11:56 PM

A vote for the NIB... Commentary and Dictionary.

Posts 6
Neal Bowes | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Dec 9 2013 7:51 PM

I plan to buy NIB when it's available.

Blessings to everybody who is working hard to make it happen!

Posts 5247
Dan Francis | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Dec 9 2013 8:34 PM

Neal Bowes:

I plan to buy NIB when it's available.

Blessings to everybody who is working hard to make it happen!

Only the people working on it know for sure when it will be out, it is past when I was told they had hoped to have it done by, but all I can say is I hope it is soon... Hopefully before Christmas is over on January 5th, but for all I know it could be months later Sad 

-Dan

Posts 2822
Michael Childs | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Dec 10 2013 7:34 AM
It would make a wonderful surprise for the final 12 Days of Christmas sale item. Would be great if they could release it on that day as a special sale item. Please Santa!

"In all cases, the Church is to be judged by the Scripture, not the Scripture by the Church," John Wesley

Posts 255
Sogol | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Dec 16 2013 12:16 AM

I just posted in another thread about New Interpreters:

http://community.logos.com/forums/p/78820/552265.aspx#552265

Basically, I said this....

If Logos and the other major Bible software companies had a licensing consortium similar to what the movie industry has done with UltraViolet (www.uvvu.com), then I could buy the New Interpreters Dictionary right now from another major Bible software company that already has it available. Later, if Logos makes it available, I could just pay Logos a fraction of the full price to use it on Logos since my content rights would transfer over to Logos. I would just pay Logos a much smaller fee for a license to use it on their platform.

If interested, the thread starts here:

http://community.logos.com/forums/t/78820.aspx

Posts 5247
Dan Francis | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Jan 2 2014 3:15 PM

Dan Francis:

I believe at least the NIB is being actively developed. You may remember earlier this year when the Westminster Bible Companion jumped from almost there to an actual shipping date of less than a month off… I have been told NIB is actively being worked on and while the end is in sight no firm date can made (I had been also reminded how no matter how smoothly something seems to be going something usually comes up to put back release dates. As any of us waiting for the Book of Common Prayer Collection can attest to (it's July release has been pushed back again and again till what is now November). It is nice to know whether is is sooner or later it is coming to Logos. I have no idea if the Dictionary is being worked on or not. 

-Dan

Disappointment for the New Year. I was told by Bob in an email. It is not yet under development.... He had inquired for me but had been given a date when they were expecting it to get to production levels. Bob says it is currently at the 80% level. From what I am seeing and hearing now despite having hope in the past, I have little hope that the NIB will make it to Logos. I think it is a shame but I am just glad to know Accordance has said it will be in their software not too many months off because I don't think it will be in Logos even by this time next year...

-Dan

Posts 1602
Deacon Steve | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Jan 2 2014 4:39 PM

Dan Francis:

Disappointment for the New Year. I was told by Bob in an email. It is not yet under development....

-Dan

Sad

Posts 255
Sogol | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Jan 6 2014 10:31 PM

Dan Francis:

Disappointment for the New Year. I was told by Bob in an email. It is not yet under development.... He had inquired for me but had been given a date when they were expecting it to get to production levels. Bob says it is currently at the 80% level. From what I am seeing and hearing now despite having hope in the past, I have little hope that the NIB will make it to Logos. I think it is a shame but I am just glad to know Accordance has said it will be in their software not too many months off because I don't think it will be in Logos even by this time next year...

-Dan

This is a real bummer.

After I saw this, I figured that it's even less likely we'll see the New Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible (NIDB) in Logos anytime soon. So I did something I had not done in a very long time - I bought it from another Bible software company. The sale price was too good to pass up (~$75), and if Logos isn't going to get it, I wanted to at least have digital access to it somewhere. I'll still buy it from Logos if they ever get it into production, but this seemed like the best option for now.

Do you know if Logos will still put the NIB/NIDB into production if they get to the 100% mark, or is there some other issue holding it up?  

Posts 3655
Floyd Johnson | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 2:27 AM

Sogol:
sale price was too good to pass up (~$75),

Source?  Please email, if possible, to floydj@ outlook dot com.  Thanks.

Blessings,
Floyd

Pastor-Patrick.blogspot.com

Posts 255
Sogol | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 2:26 PM

Floyd Johnson:

Sogol:
sale price was too good to pass up (~$75),

Source?  Please email, if possible, to floydj@ outlook dot com.  Thanks.

 

Unfortunately, that was a pretty short sale, and it's now back to full price ($299). It was on sale for $99, plus they gave me another 25% off discount.

The full Logos price for the NIDB looks like it will also be $299, which is why I think the $139 pre-pub price looks like a great deal.

Posts 2289
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 5:34 PM

Sogol:

Unfortunately, that was a pretty short sale, and it's now back to full price ($299). It was on sale for $99, plus they gave me another 25% off discount.

The full Logos price for the NIDB looks like it will also be $299, which is why I think the $139 pre-pub price looks like a great deal.

I'm not ashamed to say, though I may offend the Spirit of the Lord, that I am down right jealous. I wish you would hint a little more information. It all sounds too good to be true. A $299.00 resource for $99.00. Yeah right!

Your either a prankster or one of most fortunate men alive. I do not know which, but, I am green, green, green with envy! I thoroughly agree with you that Katherine Doob Sakenfeld's work as editor is very generously priced, but, look at where the bar graph is: it's a joke compared to where the first priority of my efforts have been placed (the commentary). I hope your post lights a fire under the bottoms of our readership those who have chosen to ignore this scholarly treasure.

Please consider sampling examples of the breadth of coverage this gem affords. Give Catholic, Anglican and Evangelical examples. Show how useful the dictionary is. Let people in on what we are seemingly casting aside so foolishly. 

I am really frustrated by this whole matter, but, I remain hopeful that we may just yet see at least the commentary into production this year. Push the dictionary if you would be so kind. I do not fault your good fortune. Cheers.

-Beloved

PS

I have vetted the most likely persons. Companies A, B, O, and WS. Am I hot or cold? None of which seem capable of reconstructing your feat. Hint, hint.

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 255
Sogol | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 6:08 PM

Beloved:

Sogol:

Unfortunately, that was a pretty short sale, and it's now back to full price ($299). It was on sale for $99, plus they gave me another 25% off discount.

The full Logos price for the NIDB looks like it will also be $299, which is why I think the $139 pre-pub price looks like a great deal.

I'm not ashamed to say, though I may offend the Spirit of the Lord, that I am down right jealous. I wish you would hint a little more information. It all sounds too good to be true. A $299.00 resource for $99.00. Yeah right!

Your either a prankster or one of most fortunate men alive. I do not know which, but, I am green, green, green with envy! I thoroughly agree with you that Katherine Doob Sakenfeld's work as editor is very generously priced, but, look at where the bar graph is: it's a joke compared to where the first priority of my efforts have been placed (the commentary). I hope your post lights a fire under the bottoms of our readership those who have chosen to ignore this scholarly treasure.

Please consider sampling examples of the breadth of coverage this gem affords. Give Catholic, Anglican and Evangelical examples. Show how useful the dictionary is. Let people in on what we are seemingly casting aside so foolishly. 

I am really frustrated by this whole matter, but, I remain hopeful that we may just yet see at least the commentary into production this year. Push the dictionary if you would be so kind. I do not fault your good fortune. Cheers.

-Beloved

PS

I have vetted the most likely persons. Companies A, B, O, and WS. Am I hot or cold? None of which seem capable of reconstructing your feat. Hint, hint.

Thanks. I guess I was fortunate to get it at that price. It was part of their Christmas sale, so that might happen again. And I still don't know exactly why it gave me another 25% off the sale price, bringing my final price down to <$75. I may have had clicked on a coupon code or something.

As for the initials of the company that offered it, look Over There......... :) Yet, I still think the resource will be far more valuable to me as part of my Logos library, which is why I am willing to buy this again if Logos releases it.

Per your request for an example of an entry, I'll paste below the entry on Revelation by Craig Koester (this is a pretty random selection - I haven't even read the whole thing yet). Please forgive the sub-par copy/paste formatting.

 

Revelation. See APOCALYPSE; APOCALYPTICISM; AUTHORITY; DIVINATION; HIDE, TO; INSPIRATION AND REVELATION; PROPHET, PROPHECY; REVELATION, BOOK OF; VISION.
Revelation, Book of revˊuh- layˊshuhn [̓Αποκάλυψις ̓Ιωάννου Apokalypsis Iōannou]. This book is also called the Apocalypse of John (Apokalypsis Iōannou). As a collection of visions addressed to seven churches in Asia Minor, it depicts the conflict between the allies of God and the forces of evil. The visions move in cycles through series of threats that culminate in scenes of worship in the heavenly throne room. The book climaxes with the defeat of evil, a new heaven and earth, and the descent of the new Jerusalem, where the redeemed worship God and Christ the Lamb.
 Social and Historical Context Authorship Identity Social location Date Setting Genre Apocalypse Prophecy Letter Literary Features Language and style Idiosyncratic Greek Repetition Hymnic elements Structure Overview of contents Narrative aspects Narrator Characterization Imagery Plot Spatial and temporal aspects Theological Perspectives God Jesus Spirit Creation Evil People of God Salvation and judgment Special Topics Four horsemen 144,000 Beast 666 Babylon the harlot Armageddon Millennium Revelation's Place in the Scriptures Use of the Old Testament Relationship to other New Testement writings History of canonization Hermeneutical Approaches Futuristic interpretation Historical and social interpretation Theological interpretation Bibliography
 A. Social and Historical Context
 Revelation was written by a Christian prophet named John in the latter part of the 1 cent. ce. The congregations addressed by it faced challenges ranging from persecution to assimilation and complacency.
 1. Authorship
 a. Identity. The author identifies himself as JOHN, which seems to be his true name ( Rev 1: 1, 4, 9; 22: 8). He received visions on the island of Patmos, but does not say more about his identity ( 1: 9- 11). His familiarity with local issues suggests that he had prior contact with the Christians to whom he writes. John was probably of Jewish background. He knows the OT well, assumes that Christians are true Jews ( 2: 9; 3: 9), and writes a peculiar form of Greek, which might mean that his first language was Hebrew or Aramaic.
 Traditionally, the author was identified as John the son of Zebedee, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. This was the view of Justin Martyr, who wrote in the mid- 2 cent. ce ( Dial. 81. 4). Later in the century Irenaeus ascribed Revelation and the Fourth Gospel to the apostle John ( Haer. 3. 11. 1; 4. 20. 11). The idea that the apostle wrote Revelation was accepted by other writers of the period and continues to be affirmed by some interpreters. Many others, however, find this unlikely since the author never claims to have seen the earthly Jesus and does not call himself an apostle. For him the apostles are founding figures from the past, and he does not include himself among them ( Rev 18: 20; 21: 14).
 Some early Christians thought that if the Gospel was written by the apostle then Revelation might come from a church elder named John ( Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 3. 39. 4–6; 7. 25. 16). Many modern interpreters agree that Revelation and the Fourth Gospel have different authors, but also say that neither book was written by the son of Zebedee ( see §F2). Revelation never suggests that its author was an elder. John the author of Revelation cannot be identified with any other known figure from the early church.
 b. Social location. John calls himself a "servant" of Jesus Christ, which means he belongs to Christ and is obedient to him ( Rev 1: 1 b). Since this title is used for all Christians, it places John among other believers ( 1: 1 a). Using kinship language, he calls himself the "brother" of those to whom he writes ( 1: 9). All who profess the same faith belong to the same family and are to support and encourage one another ( 19: 10). He is a priest in the sense that all Christians are priests, worshiping the one true God ( 1: 6 b).
 John's distinctive role is that of a prophet. He tells of receiving an inspired message from God and Jesus, which he was to send to congregations in Asia Minor ( 1: 9- 11). Although he does not call himself a prophet, he says that he was divinely commanded to prophesy ( 10: 11) and refers to his book as prophecy ( 1: 3; 22: 7, 10, 18, 19). His familiarity with congregations throughout the province of Asia suggests that he traveled from place to place. He refers to other legitimate Christian prophets as "your brothers the prophets," but he does not suggest that these prophets belonged to the same group or that he was their leader ( 22: 9). John's rivals included a prophetess nicknamed Jezebel and some traveling teachers or apostles, whose message he opposed ( 2: 2, 20). He responds to their influence with his own prophetic word.
 2. Date
 Revelation was probably written between 80 and 100 ce. A more precise date is difficult to determine. Since Revelation is mentioned by Justin Martyr, it must have been composed before the middle of the 2 cent. ce. Several factors suggest that it was put in final form in the closing decades of the 1 cent. ce.
 The beast from the sea personifies a tyrant, who is said to have died and come back to life ( 13: 3, 12, 14). This beast resembles the emperor NERO, who persecuted Christians in Rome, committed suicide in 68 ce, and yet was rumored to be alive and preparing to return to power ( Sib. Or. 4: 119–24, 138–39; Dio Chrysostom, Pulchr. 21. 10). Some have argued that Revelation was written in the late 60s in response to Nero's persecution, but since Revelation alludes to stories about Nero's return, the book was probably written after the end of Nero's reign.
 The name Babylon is used for Rome, the city on seven hills that rules the world ( Rev 17: 5, 9, 18). Apocalyptic Jewish writings of the late 1 and 2 cent. refer to Rome as Babylon ( Sib. Or. 5: 143; 4 Ezra 3: 1- 2, 29- 31; 2 Bar. 67: 7). Just as Babylon destroyed the First Temple in 587 bce, Rome destroyed the Second Temple in 70 ce. Therefore, it seems likely that Revelation was composed sometime after 70 ( see BABYLON, NT; ROMAN EMPIRE).
 John pictures the Temple under siege in Rev 11: 1- 2. Some take this to mean that the actual Temple was still standing and therefore date Revelation to 68–70 ce, shortly before the Romans destroyed the sanctuary. The vision does not, however, refer to the earthly Temple but uses siege imagery to depict threats against the Christian community. The Temple was a common metaphor for the Church and the vision fits well in the period after 70 ce ( compare 1 Cor 3: 16; 2 Cor 6: 16; Eph 2: 20- 22; Rev 3: 12).
 The heads of the beast represent seven kings. Five have fallen, one is reigning, and one is yet to come ( Rev 17: 9- 10). This cryptic passage is sometimes mined for clues as to which emperor was reigning when John wrote, but there is no consensus about how best to do this. Some begin counting the kings with Julius Caesar, others with Augustus, Gaius, or Nero. Some include the three emperors who ruled briefly in 68–69 and others exclude them. Alternatively, some count only the emperors who were deified or died violently. Finally, it may be that the seven kings simply represent an era of oppressive power. The vision yields no reliable information about Revelation's date.
 Those who place Revelation in the late 1 cent. ce often date it to 95–96 ce. This follows Irenaeus, who said that John saw his visions toward the end of the reign of DOMITIAN, who died in 96 ce ( Haer. 5. 30. 3). The final years of Domitian's reign have been pictured as a time of heightened pressure to worship the emperor, with threats of persecution against those who resisted. Such a scenario has been seen as the context in which John wrote his visions of the beastly tyrant ( Rev 13: 1- 18; 17: 1- 6).
 Nevertheless, there are good reasons to consider dates ranging from 80–100 ce, rather than choosing a specific date like 95. Irenaeus assumed that Revelation was penned by John the apostle, but this is probably not correct. Therefore, one might also question whether his view of the date is accurate. There is little evidence that Domitian's reign was marked by intensified pressure for people in Asia Minor to participate in the imperial cult or that he singled out Christians for persecution. Rather than responding to a specific crisis, John's book addresses issues that were common in the final decades of the 1 cent. ce.
 3. Setting
 John says that he received his visions on the island of PATMOS, which is in the Aegean Sea off the coast of Asia Minor or modern Turkey. He was there "because of the word of God," which probably means he was banished because of his preaching ( 1: 9). Those deemed guilty of promoting superstition were sent to islands—own losand Christianity was regarded as a superstition by its opponents. Those relegated to islands had to support themselves but were not subjected to forced labor.
 The SEVEN CHURCHES he addresses were located in the Roman province of Asia and faced several issues ( 1: 4, 11). First, some were persecuted because of their faith. The process began with verbal denunciation by persons in synagogues. Since there were Jewish communities in nearly all the cities mentioned in Revelation, the conflict between Christians and Jews seems to have been limited to two locations ( 2: 8- 11; 3: 7- 13). When denunciations portrayed Christians as a threat to the social order, the civic authorities could imprison them. If Christians refused to compromise, they could be put to death ( see CHRISTIAN- JEWISH RELATIONS; JEWISH CHRISTIANITY).
 Persecutions in the 1 cent. ce were local and sporadic. Roman authorities did not carry out sustained campaigns against Christians ( Pliny the Younger, Ep. 10. 96). Nero's persecution of Christians in the mid- 60s was confined to Rome. In the churches addressed by Revelation, a Christian named Antipas had been killed at Pergamum, but others there seem to have been left alone ( Rev 2: 13). The potential for persecution was evident in SMYRNA and PHILADELPHIA, but John's visions of widespread violence go beyond the experience of his readers ( 13: 8, 15).
 Second, some faced issues of assimilation to Greco- Roman culture. A specific problem concerned eating meat that had been offered to pagan deities. Civic festivals included meals and distributions of sacrificial meat, while gatherings of friends and businesspeople were held in temples. Christians seeking to maintain social and commercial contacts would have felt pressure to participate. Some at PERGAMUM and THYATIRA thought it acceptable to eat sacrificial meat, following the teaching of Balaam and a prophetess nicknamed Jezebel ( 2: 14, 20). This latitudinarian approach might also have been shared by the NICOLAITANS ( 2: 6, 15). In contrast, John argues that readers should resist idolatry and the social and economic pressures that lead to compromise—although zeal for truth should not lead to a loss of love ( 2: 2- 4).
 Third, some congregations were complacent. SARDIS had a reputation for being alive, yet was spiritually dead ( 3: 1- 2). Christians at LAODICEA were rich, yet tepid in faith ( 3: 14- 17). Here the problem was not persecution but prosperity. Economic well- being had diminished faith commitments, so that a congregation became an innocuous part of its cultural context. The vision of the harlot later showed how the preoccupation with wealth bred an easy tolerance of violence, arrogance, and religious infidelity ( 17: 1- 6; 18: 1- 24).
 Those addressed by Revelation faced a spectrum of issues relating to life in the Roman world. Later these issues reappear in the visions of the beast, false prophet, and harlot, who personify violence, idolatry, and the preoccupation with wealth. The beast has traits of Rome and its rulers ( see §E3). The visions of its brutality relate the local threats of violence to the wider claims of the empire. The false prophet induces people to worship the beast ( 13: 11- 18; 19: 20). This fits practices in the imperial cult, which received broad local support in Asia Minor throughout the 1 cent. ce. The vision relates local questions of accommodating idolatry to the practice of deifying human beings, which is shown to be tyrannical. Finally, the harlot's obsession with wealth calls into question the complacency of those who are prosperous. Amassing riches is linked to selling out to a debauched commercial network ( 18: 1- 20).
 B. Genre
 Readers approach different literary genres in different ways. Interpretation is affected by what kind of material they think they are reading. Revelation has features of several literary types.
 1. Apocalypse
 Revelation identifies itself as an apocalypse ( apokalypsis; 1: 1 a). The term refers to the disclosure of what has been hidden. A revelation is not designed to conceal meaning but to convey it. The term apocalypse has come to be used for a specific kind of literature. It designates a work with a narrative framework in which a revelation of transcendent reality is given by an otherworldly being to a human recipient. Typically it discloses a supernatural world and points to salvation at the end of time. Other examples of apocalypses are 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, and 2 Baruch ( see APOCALYPTICISM; ESCHATOLOGY IN EARLY JUDAISM; ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NT).
 Most apocalypses are pseudonymous. The author assumes the name of a person from the past, like Enoch or Ezra, while writing for an audience in a later period. John, however, departs from this practice by writing in his own name. He says that God gave the revelation to Jesus, who sent it through an angel to John, who now discloses it to the readers ( 1: 1). The work has a vertical dimension in that John is shown God's heavenly throne room where angels and other heavenly beings reside ( 4: 1–5: 14; 7: 9- 17; 15: 1- 8). Its horizontal or temporal aspect looks forward to the final defeat of evil and appearance of a new creation ( 19: 11–22: 5).
 John uses this established literary form to give the readers a transcendent perspective. His apocalypse takes them into a heavenly world so they can see this world from a heavenly point of view. He discloses the nature of God's conflict with evil and assures readers of God's final victory. This enables them to see the present in light of God's future, giving them incentive to remain faithful. An apocalypse can also serve as protest literature. The visionary world shows that the present order is not absolute or final. Readers need not conform to the patterns of idolatry, violence, and avarice that dominate the world. The present order will pass away, but God's purposes will endure.
 2. Prophecy
 Revelation is also called a prophecy ( 1: 3). Its opening lines resemble those of prophetic books in the OT ( Jer 1: 1- 2; Ezek 1: 1- 3; Amos 1: 1). Many parts of Revelation recount visionary experiences like those attributed to biblical prophets. The heavenly throne room ( Isa 6: 1- 4; Ezek 1: 4- 28; Rev 4: 1- 11) and new Jerusalem ( Ezek 40: 1 – 48: 35; Rev 21: 1 – 22: 5) are good examples. Other sections include what John purports to have heard, such as words from God's throne ( Rev 1: 8), the risen Christ ( 22: 12- 13), or the Spirit ( 14: 13).
 Some assume that prophecy mainly predicts future events. Revelation looks to the future, since its visions extend to the new heaven and new earth ( 21: 1). But it is clear that the whole book is prophecy, which means it includes more than prediction ( 1: 3; 22: 7, 10, 18, 19). There are condemnations of sin, calls for repentance, and words of encouragement. Warnings are sometimes given in conditional form, so that the threat will be carried out only if repentance does not occur ( 2: 5, 16; 3: 3). The promises and blessings are not so much predictions of events as expressions of God's commitment to the faithful ( 2: 7, 10- 11; 14: 13; 19: 9). The Hebrew prophets include a comparable range of material.
 The main function of prophecy, in the context of Revelation, is to promote faithfulness to God and Jesus. Prophetic witnesses wear sackcloth as a visible call to repentance and faith ( 11: 3). They have authority to bring plagues, but nothing is said about their ability to predict the future. True prophecy is known by its witness to Jesus ( 19: 10). Similarly, false prophets like Jezebel and the beast from the land are denounced for leading people into idolatry, not for wrongly foretelling the future ( 2: 20; 13: 11- 18; 16: 13- 14; 19: 20). People are to respond to prophecy by "keeping" it, which has to do with fundamental commitments ( 1: 3). To "keep" Revelation's prophetic message is to worship God ( 22: 9). See PROPHET IN THE NT AND EARLY CHURCH.
 3. Letter
 Revelation begins and ends like a LETTER. The standard opening of an ancient letter had three elements: the name of the sender, the intended recipients, and a greeting. This pattern is used in early Christian letters, which were usually addressed to congregations and read aloud ( 1 Thess 5: 27). Instead of the usual Greek greeting ( chairein [ χαίρειν], "greetings"), Christian letters began "Grace to you and peace" ( e. g., 1 Thess 1: 1; 1 Pet 1: 1- 2). The grace and peace were often said to come from God and Jesus ( Rom 1: 1- 7; 1 Cor 1: 1- 3; Phil 1: 1- 2), and sometimes praise to God was included in the greeting ( Gal 1: 1- 5). The letters typically ended with an expression like "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you" ( 1 Cor 16: 23; Gal 6: 18; 1 Thess 5: 28).
 Revelation includes the standard introduction for a letter: "John to the seven churches that are in Asia. Grace to you and peace" ( Rev 1: 4). Like other Christian letters, Revelation addresses several congregations and its message is to be read aloud ( 1: 3). The greeting of grace and peace comes from God, the seven spirits before his throne, and Jesus Christ, and it includes words of praise ( 1: 4- 6). Like other NT letters Revelation concludes "The grace of the Lord Jesus be with all the saints. Amen" ( 22: 21).
 The letter format shows that Revelation is to be read contextually. Its visionary contents speak to the congregations identified in its opening salutation. Some interpreters limit Revelation's epistolary aspect to the first three chapters, which deal specifically with the churches in Asia Minor, but this can lead to a non- contextual reading of the rest of the book. Epistolary elements frame Revelation, so that the entire work can be read as a message to the seven churches. This means that interpreters should take the context of Revelation seriously, as they do when interpreting other NT letters.
 C. Literary Features
 Revelation says that it recounts visions that John received. Interpreters can grant that genuine visionary experiences lie behind the book, while recognizing that John has written of them in an established literary format using his own distinctive style.
 1. Language and style
 a. Idiosyncratic Greek. Revelation is written in Greek, the dominant language of the eastern Roman Empire, yet its syntax is idiosyncratic. Sometimes the genders and cases of nouns, adjectives, and participles do not agree. Participles are used in place of finite verbs and vice versa. Sentence after sentence begins with kai ( καί, "and"). New constructions can depart markedly from accepted Greek practice. For example, references to God might begin with the correct participial construction ho ōn ( ὁ ὤν) or "the one who is," then shift to the odd combination of a definite article with a finite verb: ho ēn ( ὁ ἦν), literally, "the was" ( 1: 4).
 Assessments of John's Greek vary. Many suggest that Greek was his second language. While writing in Greek, he may have thought in Hebrew, since some of his unusual constructions have counterparts in Hebrew or Aramaic. It is not clear whether John's own knowledge of Greek was imperfect or whether he reflects speech patterns shared by others in his social context. Some propose that he deliberately flouted the standards of Greek that were used by the elite. If so, his peculiar style accents the countercultural quality of his message ( see GREEK LANGUAGE).
 b. Repetition. Revelation often lists many similar items to give a sense of magnitude, e. g., "every tribe and language and people and nation. " Moreover, such lists are repeated in varying forms in different contexts, creating cross references. For example, the Lamb redeems people of every tribe and nation, whereas the beast oppresses people of every tribe and nation ( 5: 10; 13: 7). Listing phenomena like lightning, thunder, and rumbling conveys divine majesty. Repeating the list connects visions in which God is worshiped as the Creator with those in which he confronts his opponents ( 4: 5; 8: 5; 11: 19; 16: 18).
 c. Hymnic elements. Hymns of praise occur throughout Revelation. Initially, the heavenly company ascribes glory, honor, and power to God ( 4: 11), then repeats the list along with wealth, wisdom, might, and blessing when praising the Lamb ( 5: 12). Again, listing many items magnifies the praise, while using similar lists for God and the Lamb shows that they are to be worshiped together. Repeating the praises in a later vision helps establish worship as a goal of divine action ( 7: 10- 12).
 The hymns seem to have been composed to fit the present literary context. The announcement of God's kingdom foreshadows the conflict with evil to come ( 11: 15- 18). The psalm- like praise of God's justice leads to enacting justice against the beast's followers ( 15: 3- 4; 16: 4- 7). The victorious Hallelujah chorus celebrates the defeat of the harlot ( 19: 1- 8). The style and content of the hymns might reflect worship patterns in the churches known to John. But since he never quotes the OT verbatim, it is unlikely that he includes exact citations of hymns ( see HYMNS, NT).
 2. Structure
 The literary shape of Revelation has a number of important features. First, many sections are structured in groups of seven: seven churches, seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven plagues ( see SEVEN, SEVENTH, SEVENTY). Each constitutes a large unit within the book. Second, there are groups of unnumbered visions, including those of the woman and the dragon, the beast, Babylon the harlot, and the great battle and millennial kingdom. It is not clear that these occur in groups of seven. Third, the book is punctuated by scenes of worship in heaven, as creatures, elders, and the redeemed praise God and the Lamb. Typically these scenes include hymn- like passages. Fourth, some vision sequences are interrupted by scenes that introduce new elements. For example, six seals are opened, bringing visions of threats ( 6: 1- 17), but angels halt the action so readers can see a vision of the redeemed ( 7: 1- 17) before the final seal is opened ( 8: 1). Fifth, major sequences may overlap, a technique known as intercalation; e. g., seven angels with plagues appear in 15: 1, but the focus shifts to the redeemed by the glassy sea in 15: 2- 4 and only returns to the angels in 15: 5. Sixth, there are repetitive elements: e. g., the world is darkened in 6: 12- 14; 8: 12; and 16: 10, and the sea is turned into blood in 8: 9 and 16: 3.
 Given this complexity, there are various ways to consider the book's structure. Some suggest that the incongruities and repetitions show that Revelation is a compilation of sources or an edited version of an older apocalypse. Most, however, treat Revelation as a unified composition because of its consistent style and language. Working with the present form of the book, some assume that Revelation outlines events in chronological order, ending with the defeat of evil and appearance of a new world. The repetitions and interruptions in the action, however, pose a challenge for linear reading.
 An alternative is that the book recapitulates the message of God's victory several times, so that major sections culminate in the scenes of heavenly celebration. This is a promising approach, but it needs to be nuanced to take the book's forward movement into account. The visions are arranged in cycles but also move forward: plagues affect a fourth of the earth, then a third of it, and finally the whole world ( 6: 8; 8: 7- 12; 16: 3- 11). Satan is cast down from heaven, later thrown into the abyss, and finally destroyed ( 12: 7- 12; 20: 1- 3, 7- 10).
 Structurally, Revelation's visions spiral forward. Readers are taken through a circle of threats and into the presence of God several times as the story moves toward final salvation. Scenes of heavenly worship signal transition points. The pattern is established in the first half of the book, chaps. 1–11. This section has three groups of seven visions: the churches, the seals, and the trumpets. Immediately before or after the seventh vision in a series, readers are taken to the heavenly throne room. The second half of the book, chaps. 12–22, also has three series of visions. Only one series—the bowl plagues—has numbered visions, but each continues leading readers through a circle of threats and into the heavenly throne room. The book as a whole can be outlined as follows:
 Introduction, 1: 1- 8 Seven Churches, 1: 9–3: 22 Seven Seals, 4: 1–8: 1 Seven Trumpets, 8: 2–11: 18 Dragon, Beast, and the Reign of God, 11: 19–15: 4 Seven Bowls and the Fall of Babylon, 15: 1–19: 10 Great Battle to the New Jerusalem, 19: 11–22: 5 Conclusion 22: 6- 21
 3. Overview of contents
 The introduction identifies the book as a revelation and prophecy, then uses a letter format to greet seven churches ( 1: 1- 8). The first series of visions ( 1: 9–3: 22) begins when John is told to write what he sees in a book and send it to the churches ( see VISION). Christ appears to him as a majestic figure, who addresses each congregation in turn. The messages follow the same pattern: an initial statement from Christ, words of reproof and encouragement, then promises to the one who conquers and an appeal to listen. The congregations face issues ranging from persecution to assimilation to complacency ( see §A3).
 The second series ( 4: 1–8: 1) begins in the heavenly throne room, where creatures and elders worship God as Creator of all things. John sees CHRIST the slaughtered and yet living Lamb, who takes a scroll from God's hand. As he opens each of its seals, a threat appears. Four horsemen bring conquest, violence, food shortages, and death. Then the martyrs under the heavenly altar ask how long God will let evil continue, and when judgment looms over the earth, people ask who can stand in the face of such wrath. As if in response, the threat is interrupted so that John can see the redeemed. Initially he hears about 144,000 from the twelve tribes of Israel, who are sealed as a sign of divine protection. But when he turns to look at them, he sees a countless multitude from all nations praising God and the Lamb. When the seventh seal is opened, a graceful silence follows.
 The third series ( 8: 2–11: 18) begins as prayers of the saints rise before God and an angel hurls fire from the heavenly altar onto the earth. Seven angels blow trumpets bringing plagues. Fire burns plant life, the sea turns to blood, rivers become bitter, and a third of the heavenly bodies are darkened. Demonic creatures from the underworld torment the ungodly, and demonic cavalry kill a third of humanity, but people do not repent. Then threats are interrupted again, and John is told to eat a scroll and prophesy. During this interlude he pictures the community of faith as a temple under siege and tells of two witnesses prophesying in sackcloth. The witnesses are killed and raised. But only when many have come to glorify God does the seventh trumpet announce God's kingdom.
 The fourth series ( 11: 19–15: 4) introduces the second half of the book. Satan the dragon threatens a woman who gives birth to the Messiah. She flees to the wilderness, and the dragon is cast down from heaven by the angelic warrior Michael and his allies. When the evil dragon comes to earth, a seven- headed beast rises from the sea to do his bidding. The beast dominates the earth and threatens the saints. Another beast rises from the land to deceive and coerce people into worshiping the sea beast. This figure is later called the false prophet, and he forces all who buy and sell to bear the name or number of the beast, which is 666. Nevertheless, a new song is heard from heaven, and angels call the world to worship God and warn of the judgment that will fall on those who worship the beast. The sequence culminates with the redeemed beside heaven's glassy sea, praising God ( see SEA OF GLASS, GLASSY SEA).
 The fifth series ( 15: 1–19: 10) begins when angels from the heavenly sanctuary pour bowls of wrath onto the earth. These afflict the followers of the beast with sores, water that turns to blood, heat, and darkness; yet they do not repent. Kings gather for battle at Armageddon, then judgment falls on Babylon the great ( see ARMAGEDDON, OT AND NT). Babylon is pictured as a bejeweled harlot who rides the seven- headed beast and is drunk on the blood of the saints. Yet the beast turns against the harlot city and burns it with fire, so that one agent of evil destroys another. The kings, merchants, and seafarers who obtained great wealth from Babylon mourn the city's demise—and their own loss of income—but angels declare that the city deserved to fall because of its arrogance, greed, and brutality. In the end, voices from heaven celebrate God's saving action.
 The sixth and final series ( 19: 11–22: 5) begins with the battle that was anticipated by the kings gathering at Armageddon. Christ is a rider on a white horse, who defeats the beast and false prophet with the sword from his mouth. Satan, the power behind the beast, is confined to the abyss for a thousand years, while the saints reign with Christ. Then Satan is loosed and defeated, the dead are raised, and the last judgment takes place. A new heaven and earth appear and the NEW JERUSALEM descends ( see NEW HEAVEN, NEW EARTH). The river of the water of life flows through the city and the tree of life is there. The nations bring their glory into the city and the redeemed worship God and the Lamb. The conclusion of the book, like its introduction, identifies its prophetic character and uses the form of a letter to extend a final word of grace.
 4. Narrative aspects
 a. Narrator. John narrates his story in the first person. His perspective extends from the chambers of heaven to the door of the abyss ( 9: 1- 2), but he is not omniscient. Others must explain what stars and lampstands signify, who can open God's scroll, who belongs in the great multitude, and who the harlot and beast are ( 1: 20; 5: 4- 5; 7: 13- 14; 17: 6- 7). John follows directives from heaven and is open to correction ( 19: 10; 22: 8- 9). His responsiveness makes him an example for readers.
 b. Characterization. Major characters appear in pairs. God is the Creator, who is enthroned in heaven and surrounded by beings who honor him for bringing all things into being ( 4: 1- 11; 10: 6; 14: 7). His adversary is Satan the dragon, who wears diadems as a sign of his aspiration to power ( 12: 3, 9). If God is the Creator, Satan is a destroyer ( 11: 18). God's throne means life and salvation for his people, while Satan's throne brings them death ( 2: 13; 7: 10). God is faithful and true, while Satan works through deception ( 6: 10; 12: 9).
 Christ the Lamb shares the throne of God. The Lamb was slain and yet is alive. Through his self- sacrifice he conquers, redeeming people of every tribe and nation for God's kingdom ( 5: 5- 10). The seven- headed beast shares Satan's throne and, like the Lamb, has been slain and returned to life ( 13: 1- 3). But where the Lamb conquers by dying for others, the beast conquers by inflicting death on others ( 11: 7; 13: 7 a). The Lamb delivers people of every tribe and nation but the beast oppresses people of every tribe and nation ( 13: 7 b). In the Lamb and the beast readers see the difference between the power of God and the working of evil.
 Those who belong to the Lamb have a seal on their foreheads, consisting of his name and the name of his Father ( 7: 3; 14: 1). Being sealed does not exempt people from suffering but provides assurance of a future in God's kingdom. In contrast, those who belong to the beast bear a mark on their foreheads or right hands. The mark is the beast's name or number, which is SIX HUNDRED AND SIXTY- SIX ( 13: 16- 18). Receiving the mark allows people to buy and sell freely and it spares them from condemnation by the beast, but it subjects them to the future judgment of God ( 14: 9- 11; 16: 2). In Revelation everyone belongs to someone. The question is whether one's identity is defined by the Lamb, who redeems or literally "purchases" people for God through his blood ( 5: 9; 14: 3- 4), or by the beast, whose mark lets people purchase in the marketplace ( 13: 17).
 Cities are sometimes personified. The new Jerusalem holds the future for God's people and is pictured as the bride of the Lamb ( 19: 7; 21: 2). She wears fine linen, gold, gems, and pearls ( see BRIDE OF CHRIST). As a bride, her relationship with the Lamb is characterized by faithfulness and purity. In contrast, Babylon is the harlot city, which rides on the beast. The harlot also wears gold and jewels, but her appearance is debauched and garish. Her relationships with her clients are defiling and reduce intimacy to a commercial transaction ( 17: 1- 6). Babylon drinks in violence and death, but in New Jerusalem death and grief are taken away, as people drink the water of life ( 18: 24; 21: 4; 22: 1). The contrasting visions are to repel readers from Babylon's obsession with wealth and violence while attracting them to Jerusalem's vision of healing and redemption.
 c. Imagery. Major images have multiple layers. Evil figures like the beast and harlot blend elements from various OT powers with allusions to the Roman Empire ( see §§E3, 4). Images of the people of God, like the two witnesses and the woman clothed with the sun, fuse aspects of biblical Israel and the church ( see §D6). The layers enable readers to see themselves and their world as part of a larger reality.
 Images are evocative, with a center of meaning and wider circle of associations. Most details contribute to the sense of the whole. John conveys the majesty of the SON OF MAN by describing his robe, hair, eyes, feet, and voice. The stars in his hand and lampstands around him are explicitly said to signify angels and churches ( see LAMP, NT), but the other details do not have independent significance ( 1: 12- 20). Similarly, the beast's heads are said to symbolize mountains and kings, but its leopard- and bear- like qualities simply emphasize its savagery ( 13: 1- 2; 17: 9).
 Many have treated Revelation's imagery as a code, which John used in order to slip his message past Roman censors to Christians on the mainland, who held the key to interpretation. This idea is colorful but implausible. When John says that the beast's heads are seven hills, even non- Christian readers would link the beast to Rome, the city on seven hills. John uses picture language to shape the way readers see things. He portrays Jesus as a Lamb to convey the sacrificial significance of his death, not to conceal his identity. Similarly, depicting the ruling power as a beast emphasizes its threatening qualities.
 d. Plot. Revelation's plots and subplots revolve around God's battle with evil. Major movements in the first part of the book relate to John's desire to know the contents of the sealed scroll in God's hand ( 5: 1- 4). The seals are opened by the slaughtered Lamb, and ominous visions appear, but the contents of the scroll are not yet revealed. Only when readers have seen that threats alone do not bring repentance does an angel appear with the open scroll ( 9: 20- 21; 10: 1- 2). He gives the scroll to John, who consumes it and is told to prophesy ( 10: 11). What then appears is a vision of the faithful bearing witness in sackcloth, a visible call for repentance ( 11: 3). They suffer — as did the Lamb — and yet their witness expresses God's will for the world.
 Threats against the church intensify in the second half of the book. The plot unfolds in a stylized way as Satan, the beast, the false prophet, and the harlot are successively introduced into the story and then defeated in reverse order:
 Satan thrown from heaven to earth ( Rev 12)
 Beast and false prophet conquer ( Rev 13)
 Harlot rides on the beast ( Rev 17)
 Harlot destroyed by the beast ( Rev 17)
 Beast and false prophet are conquered ( Rev 19)
 Satan thrown from earth into the abyss ( Rev 20)
 The turning point in the action comes when the beast turns against his former ally, the harlot, and destroys her with fire ( 17: 16). Afterward, Christ defeats the beast and false prophet by his word ( 19: 11- 21). Finally, Satan is incarcerated for a thousand years before suffering a final defeat ( 20: 1- 3, 7- 10). The overthrow of evil and the blessings given to the faithful show that God's justice will be done.
 e. Spatial and temporal aspects. Spaces in the visionary world extend from heaven to earth and the abyss below the earth. Action moves easily from one realm to another. Angels hurl coals from the celestial altar onto the earth ( 8: 5) and pour bowls of plagues from heaven on the sun, sea, and air ( 16: 3, 8, 17). Locations can be so fluid that it is not always clear where the action takes place. For example, the woman clothed with the sun seems to give birth to the messianic child in heaven before she flees to a desert. Yet the child is then snatched up to God's heavenly throne, which suggests that the birth actually takes place on earth ( 12: 1- 6).
 Places can be personified ( see §C4b) and a single place can encompass the world. John tells of two witnesses being slain in the street of the great city. In Revelation the great city is usually Babylon, a place of opulence and violence. Yet it is also Sodom the city of sin, Egypt the place of bondage, and Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified. In this one place are found the inhabitants of the whole earth ( 11: 7- 10). Locations in the visionary world often cannot be identified with sites in the ordinary world. For example, when the angel opens the abyss, unleashing hordes of demonic beings, one would be hard- pressed to locate the abyss' entrance on a map ( 9: 1- 2).
 Time in the visionary world has a fluid and surreal quality. Satan is cast down from heaven immediately after the Messiah's birth and exaltation to heaven ( 12: 5- 9), and Satan rages about the earth knowing that his time is short ( 12: 12). This so- called "short" time extends until the end of the book, when the Messiah returns and Satan is banished from the earth to the abyss ( 20: 1- 3). In the visionary world Satan's raging lasts for three and a half years, which is 1,260 days or forty- two months ( 12: 6, 14; 13: 5). Yet this brief time encompasses the whole period between Christ's exaltation and return.
 D. Theological Perspectives
 1. God
 The God of Revelation is already known from Israel's Scriptures. John takes up the tradition that God is "the one who is," then looks to the past and future by adding that God also "was and is to come" ( 1: 4). God is called the ALPHA AND OMEGA, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet ( 1: 8; 21: 6). This continual existence in the past, present, and future sets God apart from other beings. The language echoes Isa 44: 6: "I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god. " God is before all things as their Creator and he will bring all things to their fulfillment.
 God is the world's rightful ruler. His reign is recognized by the hosts of heaven and the creatures of earth and sea, but other powers seek to dominate and ruin the world God made ( Rev 5: 13; 11: 18). Therefore, actions against these hostile forces come from God's throne. Paradoxically, God's power is revealed in the slaughtered Lamb, who builds God's kingdom through his blood ( 5: 9- 10). God's authority challenges human attempts to make their own power absolute. Revelation critiques human efforts to deify their rulers. When people put themselves in the place of God, the result is tyranny ( 13: 4- 8).
 God is just, yet questions persist. How long will God allow evil to operate, so that justice is denied to suffering people ( 6: 9- 10)? The visions affirm that God is merciful as well as just. The plagues press the ungodly to repent, and when this fails to occur God sends witnesses to continue calling for repentance ( 9: 20- 21; 10: 11; 11: 3). God's justice will bring evil to an end ( 15: 3; 19: 2), but God also continues to call for change, for repentance, before God's justice is complete ( see GOD, NT VIEW OF; JUSTICE, NT).
 2. Jesus
 John hears that Jesus is the Lion of Judah and Root of David, the ruler who will build God's kingdom ( 5: 5; compare Gen 49: 9- 10; Isa 11: 1). He also sees that the power of the Lion is conveyed in the slaughtered Lamb ( Rev 5: 6). The blood of the crucified Messiah establishes the kingdom by ransoming people to worship God as true priests ( Rev 5: 9- 10). The imagery recalls the sacrifice of the Passover lamb, which led to Israel's deliverance from slavery and redemption to be God's priestly people ( Exod 12: 3, 27; 19: 6). The Lamb's blood also connotes atonement for sin and reconciliation with God ( Lev 17: 11; Isa 53: 4- 7; Rev 1: 5). The LAMB is the central image for Jesus in Revelation.
 Jesus is the King of kings, who confronts the forces of evil ( 19: 16). The Lamb has a militant and confrontational side. If people are oppressed by tyrannical forces, then saving means liberating them from bondage. Christ comes as a warrior—not against the earth but against those who destroy the earth ( 11: 18). His main opponents are the beast and false prophet, whose dominion is marked by deception and coercion. His weapon is his word, which ends their oppressive rule ( 19: 15, 20- 21).
 Revelation has a high CHRISTOLOGY. The Lamb shares God's throne ( 3: 21; 7: 17). They exhibit the same wrath against evil ( 6: 16; see WRATH OF GOD) and together provide SALVATION ( 7: 10). God is called the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end ( 1: 8; 21: 6), and these same expressions are used for Jesus ( 1: 17; 22: 13). Jesus is not a second god but shares the existence of the one true God. Revelation clearly distinguishes angels, who cannot be worshiped ( 19: 10; 22: 8- 9), from Jesus, who is rightly worshiped as one worships God ( 4: 10- 11; 5: 8- 10, 13- 14). In and through Christ, God reigns ( 11: 15).
 3. Spirit
 The Spirit of God inspires prophetic oracles in Revelation. When John sees and hears things "in the spirit," he does so in a spiritual state brought about by God's Spirit ( 1: 10; 4: 2; 17: 3; 21: 10). When the exalted Christ addresses the seven churches with words of admonition and encouragement, each message concludes with an appeal to "listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches" ( 2: 7, 11, 17, 29; 3: 6, 13, 22). Here the words of the Spirit are those of the risen Christ. Elsewhere the Spirit speaks along with other heavenly beings, affirming that those who die in the Lord find rest, and inviting all to receive the book's message ( 14: 13; 22: 17). The significance of the seven spirits before God's throne is disputed ( 1: 4; 3: 1; 4: 5; 5: 6). They may be seven angelic beings, although some propose that they represent the sevenfold fullness of God's Spirit. In any case, the focus of the Spirit's prophetic work is to promote the worship of God by bearing faithful witness to Jesus ( 19: 10). See HOLY SPIRIT.
 4. Creation
 God is the Maker of all things and the world is his CREATION. The four creatures around his throne have the faces of a lion, ox, eagle, and human being. As the heavenly representatives of the created order they praise God for bringing all things into existence ( 4: 6- 11). Their praise extends in waves throughout the universe, so that every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea joins in acclaiming God and the Lamb ( 5: 13). This vision of creation's harmony is central to John's apocalyptic worldview. God's adversaries seek to ruin the earth ( 11: 18). The beast and harlot corrupt earth's peoples and reduce its wealth to mere commodities, which are exploited for their own ends ( 18: 3, 11- 14). Because God created heaven, earth, and sea, he refuses to let these powers dominate the world ( 10: 6; 14: 7; 19: 2).
 Visions of plagues falling on earth and sea stand in tension with this central affirmation of the world as God's creation ( 8: 6–9: 21; 16: 1- 11). It is clear that the plagues are not directed against the created order but against those who reject God and ally themselves with evil. As fire falls from heaven and waters turn to blood, God's adversaries experience threats on every side. The plagues confront the ungodly while leaving them alive so that they have opportunity to turn away from evil. If the creation suffers, it does so as God pressures his adversaries to repent ( 9: 20- 21; 16: 9, 11). Just as the faithful who suffer are promised new life through resurrection, the creation has a future in being made new by God ( 21: 1- 5).
 5. Evil
 SATAN the dragon is the personification of EVIL. He is identified as the serpent who has deceived people into sin since the beginning ( 12: 9; Gen 3: 1). The devil has also had the role of denouncing people as sinners before God ( Rev 12: 10; Zech 3: 1). But after the birth and exaltation of Jesus, Satan was expelled from heaven by Michael and his angels ( Rev 12: 5, 7- 9). Knowing this reframes the way people perceive evil. The devil rages furiously about the earth and seems invincible. Yet this vision shows the opposite: he acts so ferociously because he is now wounded, banished from heaven, and has only a limited time left ( 12: 12). Those who think evil is supreme will give in to it, but those who know it is losing have incentive to resist.
 Satan's power infiltrates the political structures personified by the beast ( see §E3). The political order is not inherently evil but becomes a tool of evil in John's visions. Its principal manifestation is idolatry, the deification of human power that leads to tyranny. Similarly, evil infiltrates economic life. Goods ranging from gold and jewels to fine cloth can play a positive role in the new Jerusalem, but in Babylon's world order they become fuel for an arrogant and brutal power ( see §E5). God acts in part by turning evil against itself, so that the violent beast destroys its own ally the harlot ( 17: 16). Finally, God confronts the satanic power itself, bringing evil to an end ( 20: 7- 10).
 6. People of God
 The people of God include biblical Israel and the followers of Jesus. The vision of the woman clothed with the sun brings together traits of God's people from many times and places ( 12: 1- 17). Like biblical Zion she is in labor, giving birth to the Messiah ( compare Ps 2: 8- 9; Isa 66: 7- 8). Like Israel of old she is carried on eagles' wings to the desert where God preserves her ( Exod 19: 4). Yet her children include those who hold the testimony of Jesus ( Rev 12: 17). All belong to the same people. Finally, the new Jerusalem has the names of the twelve tribes on its gates and the names of the twelve apostles on its foundations ( 21: 12- 14). The story of Israel continues within the church.
 God's people are called from all nations and are to bear witness to all nations. The two witnesses in 11: 3- 12 represent the whole church. They wear sackcloth as a visible call for repentance. Like Moses, Elijah, and Jeremiah they have power to bring plagues ( Exod 7: 19; 1 Kgs 17: 1) and preach with fire ( Jer 5: 14). Like Zerubbabel and Joshua the priest, they are called lampstands and olive trees ( Zech 4: 3, 14). Like Jesus they are killed and resurrected. These witnesses are afflicted and yet testify to the truth before the nations. They portray the vocation of the Christian community.
 7. Salvation and judgment
 Revelation recognizes that sin is present in the church and the world. Christ calls the churches to repent of idolatry, complacency, and lovelessness ( 2: 5, 16; 3: 3, 19). The call includes warnings about sin's consequences as well as promises of blessing for the faithful ( 3: 16, 20). Sin is also part of the wider world, and God's desire is that the world repents. PLAGUE visions reveal God's judgment against the wicked ( 9: 20- 21). When these plagues do not bring change, however, the judgments are interrupted so that God's witnesses can prophesy in sackcloth as a visible call for repentance ( 11: 3). Angels call the world to turn to God, warning of judgment against the ungodly and promising blessing to the faithful ( 14: 6- 13). When more plagues occur, the ungodly are left alive so that they still have opportunity to repent, even if they do not do so ( 16: 9, 11).
 Revelation also understands that evil forces influence people. Satan and his allies personify oppressive powers that go beyond any one person's sin. They enmesh people in a web of falsehood and wrongdoing. Insofar as people are sinful they are accountable and are to repent. Insofar as they are held captive by these powers they must be liberated. By enacting judgment against Satan and his agents, God brings deliverance for those in bondage ( 19: 1- 2).
 After Satan's demise, the dead are raised for final JUDGMENT. Two sets of books are opened. First, the books of deeds point to human accountability. People are responsible for their actions ( 20: 12- 13). Second, the book of life signifies divine grace ( see LIFE, BOOK OF). People are placed in this book by the mercy of God from the foundation of the world ( 13: 8; 17: 8). Both human accountability and divine grace come into play. But in the end, people are saved by grace, by having a place in the book of life of the Lamb, who died to redeem people from every tribe and nation ( 5: 9- 10; 20: 15; 21: 27).
 Revelation depicts horrific judgments on the opponents of God, who are warned of torment in the lake of fire ( 14: 10). At the same time, its vision of the new Jerusalem depicts a salvation that is vast. The city's gates stand open. The kings and nations, who were often allied with evil, are given hope that they too might have a place there ( 21: 24- 25). The message works through the interplay of warning and promise. People are warned of the need to repent because sin and judgment are real. They are also encouraged to trust God because the promise of salvation is real.
 E. Special Topics
 1. Four horsemen
 As the Lamb opens the seals on God's scroll, four horsemen appear ( 6: 1- 8). The first has a bow and conquers. The second holds a sword and takes peace from the earth. The third holds the scales used in commerce and announces food shortages. The fourth is death, followed by Hades, who personifies the realm of the dead. Futuristic interpreters assume that they signal specific moments of conquest or death at the end of the age, but historical interpreters note that the horsemen would have been meaningful to 1- cent. ce readers. Issues of conquest, violence, food shortages, and death were real for John's audience. These figures call into question the claims of the Roman Empire to provide security, peace, and prosperity. The images of the horsemen identify points of vulnerability, stripping away the pretensions of readers who think they are secure ( 3: 17).
 2. 144,000
 This number is TWELVE times 12,000, which has a sense of completeness. Initially John hears that this represents the number of those who are sealed for God ( 7: 4). The seal is placed on the forehead and consists of the name of God and the Lamb ( see §C4b). John then hears that 12,000 are called from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, yielding the requisite 144,000. Note that John has not yet seen this group. When he turns to look, he sees a countless multitude from every nation—all who are cleansed by Jesus the Lamb ( 7: 9). Earlier, the promise of the messianic Lion was fulfilled in the slaughtered Lamb ( 5: 5- 6). Here the promise to redeem many from the twelve tribes is fulfilled in the countless multitude from every tribe, who belong to the Lamb.
 Some limit the group to martyrs, who follow the Lamb to death ( 14: 4 a). This is unlikely, however, since the 144,000 are the "redeemed" ( agorazō [ ἀγοράζω], "buy, purchase"), a term used for all Christians ( 5: 9; 14: 3- 4). Futuristic interpreters often assume that the 144,000 are Jews who will convert to Christianity at the end of the age. In 7: 1- 17, however, the 144,000 and great multitude offer two perspectives on the people of God. The imagery shows the church's continuity with biblical Israel.
 3. Beast
 The BEAST is Satan's agent and shares his throne. Like Satan the dragon, it has seven heads and ten horns ( 12: 3; 13: 1- 2). In the beast, evil takes political form. It has traits of the Roman Empire and its individual emperors. Its heads represent the seven hills on which Rome is built and seven kings ( 17: 9). The beast rules the nations and has its own ruler cult ( 13: 4). Its blasphemous names recall how emperors were acclaimed "god" and "son of god. " The beast is said to have died and returned to life ( 13: 3, 12, 14). This may allude to the story that Nero had survived death and would someday return to power ( Tacitus, Hist. 2. 8–9; Sib. Or. 5: 361–65). Like the beast, Nero was known for persecuting Christians ( Rev 13: 7). John does not expect Nero himself to return, but alludes to the story to show that in Nero the beastlike qualities of the empire show their true face.
 The beast is also a power that goes beyond Rome. It has the features of a lion, bear, leopard, and ten- horned monster, which represent the successive empires of the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, and Greeks ( Dan 7: 1- 8; Rev 13: 1- 2). Combining these features, Revelation shows that the tyrannical aspects of many empires are part of the same reality. Later writers combined the visions of the beast with other evil figures to create a composite picture of the ANTICHRIST.
 4. 666
 This is the number of the beast, which corresponds to its name ( 13: 17- 18). John tells readers to "calculate" ( psēphizō ψηφίζω) the number, which means adding up the numerical values of letters in a word. This practice is called gematria. Each letter in the Greek and Hebrew alphabets corresponded to a number: a = 1, b = 2, etc. Combining the values of letters yielded a total for a word. The problem is that the letters of many names can add up to 666. Writers using gematria usually provided clues so that readers could guess the name before doing the calculations. The beast has traits of Nero ( see §E3), and it seems likely that 666 fits the name Nero Caesar if the name is written in Hebrew ( see NUMBERS, NUMBERING).
 A problem is that John wrote in Greek and his readers might not have known Hebrew. The names of other emperors have been suggested, but these require even more complex calculations. Some suggest that sixes refer to imperfection, but six did not commonly have such connotations. Others think the number is a general reference to humankind. Again, this is unlikely since "calculate" indicates the use of gematria. Interpretation must begin with the context not with the number. Given the beast's Nero- like traits, some form of Nero's name is likely.
 5. Babylon the harlot
 The harlot exemplifies arrogance, opulence, and brutality. Wearing purple and scarlet clothing and jewels, she is drunk with the blood of the saints ( 17: 1- 6). The harlot, like the beast, fuses traits of many oppressive powers. She is called Babylon, a brutal and domineering power, who subjugates nations ( compare Jer 50 – 51). The city is also like Nineveh, who was cruel to the nations she conquered even as she lured them into debauchery like a prostitute ( Nah 3: 4). The city has a commercial empire like that of Tyre, a place derided as a prostitute for its ability to lure clients into a glittering network of sea trade ( Isa 23: 17; Ezek 27: 3).
 Early readers would have identified the harlot with Rome, the city on seven hills, who ruled the nations of the world and solidified her control by vast networks of trade ( 17: 9, 18; see ROME, CITY OF). The prosperity brought by Roman rule was intoxicating to the nations, who became numb to her violence against the innocent ( 18: 3, 24). The imagery shows people compromising their integrity for the sake of gain and a society enamored with wealth that masks corruption. The vision calls for readers to disengage from the debased economic practices that ultimately lead to the city's own demise.
 6. Armageddon
 This is the place where kings gather for war against God ( 16: 16). The battle leads to the defeat of the beast and false prophet ( 19: 11- 21). "Armageddon" is probably based on words meaning "mountain of Megiddo. " MEGIDDO was a place of defeat for God's adversaries ( Judg 5: 19; 2 Chr 35: 20- 22). The place suggested the grief that would occur at God's final victory over the nations ( Zech 12: 11). The name does not give the geographical location of the conflict but underscores that it means triumph for God. Christ comes as a mounted warrior, but does not use conventional military tactics ( Rev 19: 11). His one weapon is his word, pictured as a sword from his mouth ( 19: 15). Those who accompany Christ are not said to fight. Armageddon is the victory that Christ wins through the power of his word ( 19: 21). See ARMAGEDDON, OT AND NT.
 7. Millennium
 Satan is confined to the abyss for a MILLENNIUM or thousand years. During this time the saints rule with Christ ( 20: 1- 6). The martyrs are resurrected for life in this kingdom. Other faithful people also seem to be included, although the Greek is less clear about this. Revelation does not say where this kingdom is located. Some think it is on earth. Since the 2 cent. ce, many have argued that this fulfills OT promises about an earthly paradise where the wolf and lamb will live peaceably ( Isa 65: 25). But this is not mentioned in Revelation. Others suggest that those enthroned in the millennial kingdom are in heaven since previous throne scenes were in heaven ( e. g., Rev 4: 4; 11: 16). The problem is that the only reference to location is personal: the saints are "with Christ" and reign "with him" ( 20: 4, 6). The assurance of a future with Christ is central to the vision.
 Futuristic interpreters understand the millennial kingdom to be a period of time that will begin at a definite point in the future. But others do not think this vision fits easily into ordinary categories of time and space. If the door to the abyss cannot be located on a map ( 20: 3), it is unlikely that the beginning of the millennium can be placed on a calendar ( 20: 4). John's account of redemption is highly stylized. Satan, the beast, and the harlot are successively introduced and then defeated in reverse order ( see §C4d). The story of redemption is also stylized, as the saints reign for a thousand years ( 20: 4- 6) and then forever in the new Jerusalem ( 22: 5). The emphasis is theological rather than chronological. The future of the faithful centers on life with God and the Lamb ( see SAINT).
 F. Revelation's Place in the Scriptures
 1. Use of the Old Testament
 The OT is used throughout Revelation. John's commission to write his book is reminiscent of Daniel's encounter with a heavenly being ( Rev 1: 9- 20; see Dan 10: 2- 14) and Ezekiel's call story ( Rev 10: 8- 11; see Ezek 2: 8 – 3: 3). This tacitly places John in the company of Israel's prophets. His reports of visions also draw on the prophets: e. g., the heavenly throne room in Rev 4 recalls Ezek 1 and Isa 6, the beast in Rev 13 has the features of the monsters in Dan 7, and the new Jerusalem in Rev 21 – 22 resembles the city of Ezek 40 – 45. John's words sometimes blend multiple OT passages as in Rev 1: 7, which combines the Son of Man's coming on the clouds from Dan 7: 13 with the grief of the tribes from Zech 12: 10.
 John does not cite the OT using a formula like "it is written. " He never quotes it exactly according to any known Hebrew or Greek version. Some think John worked directly with a Hebrew text of the OT, while others think he might have known a Greek translation. The most frequent allusions are to Daniel, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Psalms, although there are also connections to many other books. Sometimes the older biblical language helps disclose the nature of sin and evil, as in the critique of Babylon's greed and brutality ( Rev 18; compare Isa 13; 21; 47; Jer 50 – 51; Ezek 26 – 28). Imagery from the plagues in Egypt ( Rev 16: 1- 21; compare Exod 7: 14 – 12: 32) and the coming day of the Lord convey the character of divine judgment ( Rev 6: 12- 17; compare Isa 13: 10; Joel 2: 30- 31; Zeph 1: 15), while the prophetic oracles of salvation help to show Christian hope ( Rev 21: 1- 6; compare Isa 25: 7- 8; 65: 17- 18).
 Theologically, Revelation's constant reliance on the OT assumes that God will be faithful to the promises of salvation and the warnings of judgment against evil that were spoken by Israel's prophets. At the same time, Revelation does not have a mechanistic notion of promise and fulfillment. The absence of verbatim quotations and the preference for paraphrase and allusion recognize that God has freedom in the way he will keep his word. The OT promises concerning the messianic Lion are kept—but in the unexpected form of a crucified Lamb ( Rev 5: 5- 6; compare Gen 49: 9- 10).
 2. Relationship to other New Testament writings
 Revelation and John's Gospel and epistles have traditionally been ascribed to the apostle John ( see §A1). There are some similarities in content. The Gospel and Revelation depict Jesus as the Word ( John 1: 1; Rev 19: 13), the lamb ( John 1: 29; Rev 5: 6), and a shepherd ( John 10: 11; Rev 7: 17). Images of light and living water are used ( John 4: 10; 8: 12; Rev 21: 23; 22: 1). Jesus and his followers are said to "conquer" by faithfulness ( John 16: 33; 1 John 5: 4; Rev 5: 5; 12: 11).
 Nevertheless, the differences in style and content make it almost certain that these writings were composed by different people. The Gospel does not name its author but traces its origin to the anonymous Beloved Disciple, who was with Jesus at the Last Supper ( John 21: 20- 24). In contrast, Revelation names its author as John, yet never claims that he was one of Jesus' early disciples ( Rev 1: 1). The Gospel is written in clear and accurate Greek, whereas the Greek of Revelation is idiosyncratic. Similarities in imagery can best be ascribed to a common reliance on the OT. For example, the Gospel relates seeing the one who is pierced to the crucifixion, while Revelation applies it to the second coming ( John 19: 37; Rev 1: 7; compare Zech 12: 10).
 Revelation has some elements in common with other NT writings. These include the image of the community of faith as a temple ( Rev 3: 12; compare 1 Cor 3: 16; Eph 2: 19- 21), the warning that Jesus will come like a thief ( Rev 3: 3; 16: 15; compare Matt 24: 42- 44; Luke 12: 39- 40; 1 Thess 5: 2), and the call for the one with ears to listen ( Rev 2: 7, 11; compare Matt 11: 15; Mark 4: 23). The woes that appear when the seven seals are opened bear some resemblance to the tribulations depicted in the Synoptic Gospels ( Rev 6: 1- 17; compare Matt 24: 3- 44; Mark 13: 3- 31). It is not clear that John had read any of the Gospels or Paul's letters, but he seems to have been familiar with some of the same traditions.
 3. History of canonization
 Revelation's inclusion in the Christian canon is related to its history of interpretation. The book was widely accepted by Christians in the mid- to late 2 cent. ce. It was used by Justin Martyr, who lived in Ephesus and later in Rome ( Dial. 81. 4). In western Syria it was attested by Theophilus of Antioch and in Asia Minor by Melito of Sardis ( Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 4. 24, 26). In Egypt it was used by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. 6. 106). In the West, it was often cited by Irenaeus, a bishop in Gaul, who understood that its teaching about the millennium affirmed a future for creation and justice for the faithful who suffered ( Haer. 5. 28–33). Tertullian of Carthage in North Africa valued its moral exhortations against sin ( Pud. 19). The apostle John was understood to be its author. A challenge to Revelation came from Marcion, who disliked its Jewish character. Another came from opponents of the Montanists, a group that emphasized the prophetic spirit and had a sensuous view of the millennium. Critics tried to discredit Revelation by ascribing it to the heretic Cerinthus.
 John's Apocalypse remained popular in the early 3 cent. ce. Hippolytus of Rome drew heavily on it in his writing of his treatise On Antichrist. Revelation was also cited by Cyprian of Carthage ( Eleem. 8. 14), Origen of Alexandria ( Comm. Jo. 2. 42–63), and others, who valued its emphasis on faith and moral life. Some in Egypt thought that Revelation envisioned a millennial kingdom devoted to physical enjoyment. Responding to the theological issue, Dionysius of Alexandria distanced Revelation from the Gospel of John. On stylistic and theological grounds Dionysius insisted that Revelation must have been written by a different author ( Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 7. 52. 1–27). Since he assumed that the Gospel was penned by the apostle, this meant that Revelation did not have apostolic authorship, and this diminished its status in the East.
 In the 4 and 5 cent., Revelation continued to be widely accepted in the West. Victorinus of Pettau in central Europe wrote On the Apocalypse, the earliest extant commentary on it, noting that its visions repeated similar threats of plagues as it looked for God's final victory over evil. Tyconius, a Donatist writer, composed a commentary on the Apocalypse that is no longer extant but held that Revelation rightly pictured the present time of the church, which exists in a conflicted and imperfect world ( Gennadius, Of Famous Men 18). His approach was adopted by Augustine, who used Revelation for his work The City of God. Jerome noted doubts about the book ( Epist. 129. 3), but he reissued Victorinus' commentary in edited form, emphasizing the book's moral aspects.
 Eastern churches in this period were divided in their attitudes toward Revelation. After Dionysius' critique of apostolic authorship, many expressed doubts about the book's authority. Eusebius was not sure whether it was to be placed among the accepted or the rejected books ( Hist. eccl. 3. 25. 2–4). Revelation was not included in the list of the Council of Laodicea ( ca. 360) or cited by John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, or Theodoret. The early Syriac Peshitta translation of the NT did not include it. Nevertheless, it was used by Methodius in The Symposium and was listed as authoritative by Athanasius of Alexandria in his Easter letter of 367. Beginning with Oecumenius who wrote Commentary on the Apocalypse in the 6 cent. ce, Greek commentaries were written on the Apocalypse, usually focusing on its theological and moral dimensions. By the 12 cent. ce it was accepted in the Armenian Church ( see CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT).
 G. Hermeneutical Approaches
 A basic interpretive question concerns the relationship of the visionary world to the ordinary world of time and space. Everyone recognizes that Revelation uses at least some symbolic language. The question is how the imagery relates to the world in which people live.
 1. Futuristic interpretation
 Popular futuristic interpretation assumes that prophecy is history written in advance. First, this means that Revelation's visions are to be taken literally. When John tells of fire falling from heaven, he is predicting that someday actual fire will fall from the sky. In practice, the literalism is selective. Futuristic interpreters regularly note that the four horsemen are not actual horsemen but symbols of coming conflicts ( 6: 1- 8). The beast is to be an actual evil figure but will not have seven physical heads ( 13: 1). Second, the visions are said to predict specific events in a chronological sequence. For example, the four horsemen signify successive disasters, the sixth seal brings an earthquake, then 144,000 Jewish Christians are sealed, etc. ( 6: 1–7: 8). In practice this also is done selectively. Scenes that fit awkwardly at one point are thought to anticipate events that occur at some other time.
 The futuristic approach often assumes that modern interpreters can understand Revelation better than its early readers, since they live closer to the end of the age. Some approaches also insert episodes from other books into Revelation in order to create a complete scenario of the end. For example, Paul's comment about the saints being caught up to meet the Lord in the air ( 1 Thess 4: 17) —something often called the rapture—is inserted at Rev 4: 1. This means that subsequent threats affect only those who were not previously Christians. The result is that Revelation's call for perseverance seems less relevant for those who do not expect to face the kinds of conflicts depicted in the book.
 2. Historical and social interpretation
 Historical interpretation, in contrast, presupposes that Revelation addressed the context for which it was written. The assumption is that the book was designed to shape the viewpoints of readers in the seven churches. Modern readers must ask how its earliest audience would have understood it, which disciplines interpretation. Some kinds of historical interpretation try to link Revelation to specific events, like the fall of Jerusalem. Other forms explore connections with broader social patterns. Revelation is understood in light of the worship practices, commercial networks, and leadership structures that were typical in Asia Minor in the late 1 cent. ce. This approach envisions the context in terms of a period rather than a specific date.
 Some forms of historical inquiry make rather direct connections between Revelation's imagery and 1- cent. ce life. Accordingly, the beast represents Rome and its emperor, and the worship of the beast is the imperial cult. Problems can arise, however, when interpreters assume that the visions directly mirror the context in which John wrote. For example, it is not clear that receiving the mark of the beast corresponded to any specific practice that was known to the readers ( 13: 16- 17). Interpreters must recognize that some elements correspond to 1- cent. ce realities while others shape the readers' perspectives by using images of a different order.
 Historical interpreters make connections with modern concerns by analogy. Readers in Western Europe and North America may not face issues of eating food sacrificed to idols ( 2: 14, 20), but they may be pressured to compromise their convictions in other ways. The imperial cult is not practiced now as it was in antiquity, but modern readers may face other forms of political and economic imperialism. Discerning analogies between ancient and modern contexts allows the book to continue shaping the perspectives of its readers.
 3. Theological interpretation
 Modern theological interpretation is often informed by a historical reading of the text. Theological questions, however, give special emphasis to aspects of the book that transcend the immediate historical context. The assumption is that there is continuity in God, Christ, and human beings. Historical interpreters look for analogies between the problems people faced in antiquity and those faced by people today. Theological interpreters ask what the visions reveal about the abiding reality of sin. From a historical perspective, one sees the imperial cult in the worship of the beast. From a theological perspective one sees the human propensity to absolutize their own power.
 Literary aspects of the visions help disclose broader theological perspectives. The beast and harlot exhibit the traits of empires that existed long before John's time ( see §§E3, 5). The problem he addresses is not only Rome but the powers of evil that lie beneath it. Difficulties arise, however, when Revelation's visions too quickly become timeless truths. General statements about God and the world lack the polemical edge that characterizes John's book. He saw the forces of evil that had been at work long before his time taking particular forms in his context. His message was not limited to informing readers about broad issues. It called for resistance and faithfulness in the world in which they lived. Contextually informed theological reading does the same.
 Bibliography: David E. Aune. Revelation. WBC 52A ( 1997); David E. Aune. Revelation. WBC 52B ( 1998); David Barr. Tales of the End ( 1998); Richard Bauckham. The Climax of Prophecy ( 1993); Richard Bauckham. The Theology of the Book of Revelation ( 1993); G. K. Beale. The Book of Revelation. NIGCT ( 1999); M. Eugene Boring. Revelation. IBC ( 1989); Adela Yarbro Collins. Crisis and Catharsis ( 1984); John J. Collins. Apocalyptic Imagination ( 1998); Steven Friesen. Imperial Cults and the Apocalypse of John ( 2001); Craig R. Koester. Revelation and the End of All Things ( 2001); J. Nelson Kraybill. Imperial Cult and Commerce in John's Apocalypse ( 1996); Harry O. Maier. Apocalypse Recalled ( 2002); Frederick J. Murphy. Fallen Is Babylon ( 1998); Grant R. Osborne. Revelation. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament ( 2002); Mitchell G. Reddish. Revelation. Smyth and Helwys Bible Commentary ( 2001); Barbara R. Rossing. The Choice between Two Cities ( 1999); Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza. The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgement ( 1985); Thomas B. Slater. Christ and Community ( 1999); Stephen S. Smalley. The Revelation to John: A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Apocalypse ( 2005); Leonard L. Thompson. The Book of Revelation: Apocalypse and Empire ( 1990); Arthur W. Wainwright. Mysterious Apocalypse ( 1993).
 Craig R. Koester

Posts 3655
Floyd Johnson | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 6:13 PM

Beloved:
I'm not ashamed to say, though I may offend the Spirit of the Lord, that I am down right jealous. I wish you would hint a little more information. It all sounds too good to be true. A $299.00 resource for $99.00. Yeah right!

Check out Amazon.com for "New Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible".  I just bought it for $76 (including shipping) - it can be found.

Blessings,
Floyd

Pastor-Patrick.blogspot.com

Posts 2289
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 6:29 PM

Floyd Johnson:
Check out Amazon.com for "New Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible".  I just bought it for $76 (including shipping) - it can be found

Floyd,

I hope you realize what you have above referenced is hard copy of a single volume of a 5 vol. set. Your reference is for vol. 1. Here is the AMZ price for the entire bible dictionary. What we want is a digital resource to run on someones software my preference is Logos but if I can get even close to what Sogol has indicated he has I would buy at the drop of a hat!

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 3655
Floyd Johnson | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 6:32 PM

Beloved:
I hope you realize what you have above referenced is hard copy of a single volume of a 5 vol. set.

Check again - I get the CD-Rom version when I follow the link.

Blessings,
Floyd

Pastor-Patrick.blogspot.com

Posts 255
Sogol | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 6:33 PM

Floyd Johnson:

Beloved:
I'm not ashamed to say, though I may offend the Spirit of the Lord, that I am down right jealous. I wish you would hint a little more information. It all sounds too good to be true. A $299.00 resource for $99.00. Yeah right!

Check out Amazon.com for "New Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible".  I just bought it for $76 (including shipping) - it can be found.

Yeah, there seem to be some affordable ways to get access to it in the meantime.

As for the printed version, it looks like Cokesbury has the whole printed set for $79.95 including shipping:

http://www.cokesbury.com/forms/ProductDetail.aspx?pid=443991

Posts 2289
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 9:26 PM

Sogol:
 3. Setting
 John says that he received his visions on the island of PATMOS, which is in the Aegean Sea off the coast of Asia Minor or modern Turkey. He was there "because of the word of God," which probably means he was banished because of his preaching ( 1: 9). Those deemed guilty of promoting superstition were sent to islands—own losand Christianity was regarded as a superstition by its opponents. Those relegated to islands had to support themselves but were not subjected to forced labor.

   Sorry guys for the prolonged hiatus but I couldn't resist a brief perusal of this post. I may be doing harm to my own position, but, that's okay. I found a typo of which I marked underline for emphasis and easy review. 

   I read the entire article, but, I of course did not study it. Very complex subject a sweeping overview with a mix of styles which speaks of multiple input. I would give this entry 3 stars though it presents much food for thought it lacks cohesion in my view. Floyd, I would beware of this purchase and review carefully post regarding the functionality of the CDROM see this: 

   3.0 out of 5 stars Not ready for prime time July 26, 2010 By Darren Miner The articles themselves are well written and of high quality. The problem is with the software. It is not fully compatible with any standards-compliant browser, such as Firefox. So if your default browser is not Internet Explorer, you will have some display issues with transliterations of Hebrew and Greek. Also, despite the claims, the software is not fully compatible with Windows 7; in particular, it installs an old (and vulnerable) version of .Net Framework that has known incompatibilities with Windows 7. If that weren't enough, the program also is incompatible with Norton Internet Security and with Perfectdisk defragmenter. Finally, the text is full of typos. So, if you don't use Windows 7, Firefox, Norton, or Perfectdisk and can live with typos, this software is for you!        If after vetting this software, you still are a buyer I would be interested in your opinion of the quality of your purchase. What I think we should be doing is convincing the Logos community of the incredible value of both NIB and the dictionary. Staying clear of troublesome or inferior products. Let's support Logos. Most of us are heavily invested in Logos and the program is hands down the best available.       Sogol, thanks for sharing your experience and the post noted above. For those who are interested the author's page is found here:  http://www.thegreatcourses.com/tgc/professors/professor_detail.aspx?pid=423 And the school he is affiliated is Evangelical Lutheran in its denomination. Sogol, it would serve some of us well if as you encounter articles that you like that you can share examples with us on this thread. The dictionary has a deep hole from which to climb out of. Thanks!

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 2289
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 9:31 PM

Sogol:

Yeah, there seem to be some affordable ways to get access to it in the meantime.

As for the printed version, it looks like Cokesbury has the whole printed set for $79.95 including shipping:

http://www.cokesbury.com/forms/ProductDetail.aspx?pid=443991

Wow!!! you really know how to find a bargain! Thanks Sogol

-Beloved

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 1823
mike | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 9:39 PM

Floyd Johnson:

Beloved:
I hope you realize what you have above referenced is hard copy of a single volume of a 5 vol. set.

Check again - I get the CD-Rom version when I follow the link.

does that work on Logos/Libronix? (came with a cd key? )

Posts 5247
Dan Francis | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jan 7 2014 10:03 PM

mike:
does that work on Logos/Libronix? (came with a cd key? )

That is the full hard bound set. Not electronic, the abingdon electronic version is just a version with a key that ties into Explorer. 

New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible CD-ROM and as you see it's $240 IT IS NOT LOGOS compatible. -Dan
Page 2 of 6 (115 items) < Previous 1 2 3 4 5 Next > ... Last » | RSS