AYBD (Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary) vs. NIDB (New Interpreter's Dictionay of the Bible) - Examples?

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Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Posted: Tue, Aug 20 2013 5:31 AM

I believe someone once posted some examples comparing the AYBD with the NIDB (not yet in Logos), but I can't find the post or thread. Can someone here do that?

https://www.logos.com/product/1660/anchor-yale-bible-dictionary

https://www.logos.com/product/8801/new-interpreters-dictionary-of-the-bible

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 1602
Deacon Steve | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 5:20 PM

Don't forget to factor in the "Back to School" discounts into your selection.

http://www.logos.com/backtoschool

 

Posts 5248
Dan Francis | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 6:02 PM

NIDB

Bibliography:M. Stol. Birth in Babylonia and the Bible:Its Mediterranean Setting (2000).
Mary F. Foskett
Nazarene, Nazarenes naz ˊ uh- reen [Ναζαρηνός Nazarēnos, Ναζωραῖος Nazōraios]. An adjective denoting origin in the village of NAZARETH that is used in the singular only of Jesus; the plural is used as a designation for Jesus’ followers.
The name Jesus was common in biblical times, so one way the Jesus of the NT is distinguished from others is by the attribution Nazarene, indicating his hometown of Nazareth. The term only occurs in the Gospels and Acts, and in two different forms. Mark uses the form Nazarēnos (1:24; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6). Matthew (2:23; 26:71) and John (18:5, 7; 19:19) use the form Nazōraios. Luke uses both forms (Nazarēnos:Luke 4:34; 24:19; Nazōraios:18:37), but uses Nazōraios exclusively in Acts (2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 22:8; 24:5; 26:9). The NT authors use both forms to refer to Jesus’ coming from Nazareth, equivalent to the expression “the one from Nazareth” (ho apo Nazareth [ὁ ἀπὸ̀ Ναζαρέθ], Matt 21:11; John 1:45; Acts 10:38).
But there are linguistic hurdles to viewing a progression from the Semitic terms for Nazareth (notsrat נֹצְרַט, natsereth נַצ=ֶּרֶת) and the Aramaic forms of the adjective (natseraya נָצְרָיָ, natseraʾa נָצְרָאָ ̄) to the Greek forms Nazarēnos and Nazōraios. In particular, it is difficult to account for the changes from the tsade (ts צ) in Aramaic to the zeta (z ζ) in both Greek forms and from the semi- vowel shewa (e) ְ to the long ō (ω) in Nazōraios. In addition, Nazareth is not mentioned in the OT, the Apocrypha, Josephus, or rabbinic literature. Thus, other derivations were suggested, such as in the Hebrew root nzr (נזר, “to vow,” “to abstain”) or in the Aramaic natsoraya (נָצֹרָיָ, “watchers,” “observers”) from the root ntsr (נצר). Most scholars conclude that our Greek forms derived from the Aramaic for Nazareth (natseraya or natseraʾa).
Matthew 2:23 links Jesus’ residence in Nazareth with the epithet Nazarene. Though some suggest Matthew is referring to a specific prophecy about the BRANCH (netser [נֵצֶר], Isa 11:1) or to a Nazirite (nazir [נָזִיר], Judg 13:7; see NAZIR, NAZIRITE), Matthew probably refers to the “holy one of God” (Isa 4:3; Judg 16:17 LXX) as a messiah who would be despised (see MESSIAH, JEWISH).
In the NT, the plural Nazōraioi (Ναζωραίοι) is used once as a title for Jesus’ followers (Acts 24:5). The term may have originated as a term of derision and was indeed used so later in the execration of the notsrim (נֹצְרִים, Nazarenes) in the twelfth of the Eighteen Benedictions. This TWELFTH BENEDICTION, called the Birkat ha- Minim, “benediction of the heretics” (ca. 100 ce), asks God to doom groups, Jewish and Gentile, who were thought harmful to the Jewish people (see b. Ber. 28b). This benediction is evidence of the schism forming between Jews who believed Jesus was the promised Messiah, and those who did not, because if a “sectarian” or “Nazarene” were to recite it, he condemned himself to be erased from the book of life where the names of the righteous are inscribed.
Though the term Nazarene was replaced by Christian (Christianos [Χριστιανός]; Acts 11:26), it was retained in the Syrian, Armenian, and Arab churches, and the Hebrew notsrim endures to this day as a designation for Christians. The modern Protestant denomination, the Church of the Nazarene, purposely named itself in awareness of the lowly and derisive connotations of the word. See CHRISTIAN- JEWISH RELATIONS.
Bibliography:Raymond E. Brown. The Birth of the Messiah (1993).
Kevin L. Anderson

Anchor

NAZARENES  The term “Nazarene” has been used in English for several related Greek and Semitic-language terms found in NT and later writings. Some of these terms are more accurately represented by other spellings, and the ways in which these terms became related remain to some extent a matter of debate. In general, Nazarene means either (1) a person from Nazareth, or (2) a member of a religious group whose name may have other connotations.

Two Greek forms, Nazoœraios and Nazareœnos, are rendered in English versions of the NT as Nazarene, corresponding to the more Hellenistic of the two. (Similarly, English uses Essene for Essaios and Esseœnos.) However, in the Greek NT text, Nazoœraios is the more frequently used form. That Nazoœraios is the more Semitic of the two is suggested by the Syriac NT, which renders both forms as NaœsΩraœyaœ. Matthew, John, and Acts use Nazoœraios exclusively; Mark and Luke (once or twice, depending on the manuscript) employ Nazareœnos. No other NT books use the name.

In the NT, Nazarene most frequently describes a person—namely, Jesus—from Nazareth. Nazareth is not directly mentioned in Hebrew literature until the liturgical poems of Kallir (7th cent. C.E.?). This, together with philological questions on the link between the town name and Nazarene, led to much speculation on the origin of these names (see Schaeder TDNT 4: 874–79). Archaeological excavation has revealed a Jewish settlement in Nazareth in the 1st cent. C.E. (see NAZARETH), and an inscription from about 300 C.E. found in Caesarea confirms the spelling of the town as NS¸RT (Avi-Yonah 1962). While one might expect the S¸ (sΩade) to be represented in Greek by s (sigma), parallel cases using z (zeta) are known. Thus questions on the formation of the gentilic remain. In rabbinic literature Jesus is labeled YSÁHW HNWS¸RY, apparently a nomen agentis from the root NS¸R, meaning, e.g., “observer” (of torah). There are at least two cases in the NT where Nazarene means something different than, or additional to, “from Nazareth.” Most of Jesus’ followers were not from Nazareth, nor, according to Luke 4, was he well received there. These cases are significant for later use of Nazarene as a group name.

Matt 2:23 has puzzled many by asserting that when Jesus’ family arrived in Nazareth it fulfilled what was said by the “prophets” (note the plural) “that he shall be called Nazoœraios.” The text clearly associates Nazareth and Nazoœraios, but since no Hebrew Scripture mentions Nazareth, readers had to look for other allusions, calling on the Hebrew roots NS¸R and NZR. In the case of NS¸R, Isa 11:1 prophesies the messianic “shoot (nesΩer)” from Jesse; additionally NS¸R as a verb can mean “to observe, to guard.” On the other hand, if Matt 2:23 alludes to NZR, there are stories of Nazirite vows, consecrating Samson (Judges 13) and others (Samuel in 4Q1 Sam). Jesus was surely not a Nazirite proper, but the LXX associates this root with holiness, and consequently some church writers (e.g., Tertullian, Eusebius) so interpreted the verse. The intention of Matt 2:23 depends in part on the language knowledge and exegetical method of the writer(s) of Matthew (Brown 1977: 207–13). In any case, Matt 2:23 presents Nazoœraios as a favorable appellation.

In Acts 24:5 Paul appears accused by other Jews as a leader of the “heresy” of the Nazoœraioi. Though of course he defends his teaching, Paul does not disown the name. Acts also introduces the name Christian (Christianoi), which eventually displaced Nazarene as the preferred self-designation of the increasingly Greek and Latin speaking gentile Church. But while those who believed in Jesus as Messiah abandoned the name Nazarene, Jews generally—including Jews who believed in Jesus, but who still observed Mosaic law—kept using Nazarene and its apparent varieties, including Heb NosΩrim. Additionally, the name was retained by the churches speaking Syriac (NaœsΩraœyaœ), Armenian, and Arabic (NasΩaœra).

In patristic literature the evolution continued. Writing ca. 200 C.E. Tertullian noted, “the Jews call us Nazarenos” (Against Marcion 4. 8). A century later Eusebius switched to past tense: “We who are now called Christians received in the past the name Nazarenoi” (onomast.). Writing about 375 C.E. Epiphanius condemns the Nazoœraioi, who are not a newly founded group, as a heresy (Panarion 29). Jerome followed Epiphanius: “… since they want to be both Jews and Christians, they are neither Jews nor Christians” (Epistle 112.13 to Augustine).

Epiphanius and Jerome (in the works cited) also provide the first clear accounts of the practice in some ancient synagogues of condemning the NosΩrim in the blessing or curse on heretics (birkat ha-minim): “… may the NosΩrim and Minim speedily perish …” (according to Cairo Genizah manuscripts). By this time, Epiphanius and Jerome are not sure whether the curse encompasses all Christians or only Jewish-Christians.

Epiphanius also condemns the Nasaraioi (Panarion 18) which his sources describe as a pre-Christian, law-observant group. There is no direct evidence that such a group existed. However, Epiphanius may have encountered a claim such as that made by the Mandeans, who call themselves the NaœsΩoœraœyaœ, the true religious “observers.” (This claim parallels that made by other groups, e.g., the Samaritans’ self-description as the “true keepers of torah.”) The Mandeans claim to predate Judaism as well as Christianity.

Another illustration of the question of differing meanings of the terms subsumed by Nazarene appears in the 3d cent. Middle Persian inscription of Kartˆär, a Zoroastrian priest who was intolerant of other religions. Kartˆär condemned, among others, “… Jews … and Nazarai, and Christians …” (lines 9–10; Chaumont). Nazarene here could represent orthodox Christians (if “Christians” in this case refers to Marcionites) or Mandeans or some variety of Jewish-Christians.

To define Nazarene, one must take into account the time, place, language, and religious perspective of the   speaker, as well as the meanings of other available religious group names. The development of these names merits further study.

Bibliography 

Avi-Yonah, M. 1962. A List of Priestly Courses from Caesarea. IEJ 12: 137–39.

Brown, R. 1977. The Birth of the Messiah. Garden City, NY.

Chaumont, M.-L. 1960. L’inscription de Kartˆär a la “Ka{bah de Zoroastra.” JA 248: 339–80.

Klijn, A. F. J., and Reinink, G. J. 1973. Patristic Evidence for Jewish-Christian Sects. Leiden.

Pritz, R. 1982. The Jewish Christian Sect of the Nazarenes and the Mishna. PWCJS 8/1: 125–30.

STEPHEN GORANSON

Posts 846
Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 6:24 PM

Wow, hardly any overlap between the two. I see the NIDB uses Greek and Hebrew, whereas the AYBD uses transliterations. Now I have to decide if it's worth $200.

Also, this isn't the first time, and probably won't be the last time, that AYBD is on sale.

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 2304
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 7:14 PM

Bump

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 2304
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 7:26 PM

Eric Weiss:
I believe someone once posted some examples comparing the AYBD with the NIDB (not yet in Logos), but I can't find the post or thread. Can someone here do that?

Hi Eric,

This might be the thread you reference as it runs the gamut...

http://community.logos.com/forums/t/44191.aspx?PageIndex=1 

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

Posts 846
Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 7:32 PM

Thanks!

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 2304
Beloved | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 20 2013 7:39 PM

Surely!

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

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