List of New Testament Hapax Legomena

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robin riley | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 27 2015 9:12 AM

(Robin)

My question is 

The term "hapax legomena" (for words that only appear once) is a bit confusing to me ...

That is, take for instance the verb "ἐλλόγει" ("ellogei" - #1677 V-PAM-2S) found in Philemon 1:18, but this same verb in another form, "ἐλλογεῖται" ("ellogeitai" - #1677 V-PPI-3S}, is  also found in Romans 5:13 ...

So would both instances of this verb configuration be considered to be "hapax legomena," or because it's the same verb used twice, would this disqualify it?  That is, each instance of the word is, indeed, unique ... "only appears once" ... so wouldn't this count as there being two different words that are "hapax legomena?"

Note #1: Did not see "ἐλλογεῖται" (from Romans 5:13) in your listing ...there any reason for this?

Note #2:The word "ἐλλόγει" (from Philemon 1:18) is a souce text variation; Westcott-Hort read this as "ἐλλόγα" ("elloga" - 1677 V-PAM-2S)

 

ἐλλόγα

WH

 

ei de ti EdikEsen se E opheilei touto emoi ellogei

1:18* Εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει, τοῦτο ἐμοὶ ἐλλόγει·

"Yet if any [thing] to you he had wronged, or he indebts,

to this [matter] be you imputing unto me." (~Robin)

 if {1487 COND} yet {1161 CONJ} to any [thing] {5100 X-ASN} he had wronged {0091 V-AAI-3S} to you {1473 P-2AS} or {2228 PRT} he indebts {3784 V-PAI-3S} to this [thing] {3778 D-ASN} unto me {1473 P-1DS} be you imputing {1677 V-PAM-2S} 

Posts 5
robin riley | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 27 2015 9:37 AM

(Robin)

Just trying to clarify this (to myself, mostly) ... that is, in the "Byzantine Textform 2005," by Maurice Robinson, I find verse 1:8 to read as:

***

1:8 Μὴ οὖν ἐπαισχυνθῇς τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν, μηδὲ ἐμὲ τὸν δέσμιον αὐτοῦ· ἀλλὰ συγκακοπάθησον τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ κατὰ δύναμιν θεοῦ,

mE oun epaischunthEs to marturion tou kuriou hEmOn mEde eme ton desmion autou alla sugkakopathEson tO euaggeliO kata dunamin theou 

***

And in 2:3 (the verse with the text variations), I find it to read as:

***

2:3* Σὺ οὖν κακοπάθησον ὡς καλὸς στρατιώτης Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ.

 su oun kakopathEson hOs kalos stratiOtEs iEsou christou

***

 

2:3 Different Word and Deletions

 

σὺ οὖν κακοπάθησον

C2 Dc K L Byz syrh goth Chrysostom Euthalius Theodoret John-Damascus ς ND Dio

 

su oun kakopasEson

you {1473 P-2NS} therefore {3767 CONJ} be you evil-suffering {2553 V-AAM-2S}

 

sugkakopathEson

be you together-evil-suffering {4777 V-AAM-2S}

 

συγκακοπάθησον

WH NR CEI Riv TILC Nv NM

 

 

2:3* Syntax

 

Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

Byz ς ND Dio

 

iEsou christou

of Yeshua/ of Jesus {2424 N-GSM} of Anointed/ of Christ {5547 N-GSM}

 

christou iEsou

of Anointed/ of Christ {5547 N-GSM} of Yeshua/ of Jesus {2424 N-GSM}

 

Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

WH NR CEI Riv TILC Nv NM

 

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Mark Barnes | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 27 2015 5:30 PM

robin riley:
The term "hapax legomena" (for words that only appear once) is a bit confusing to me ...

Hapax Legomena refers to words that are found only once, regardless of the form. In the example you give, both words are the same in their dictionary form (ἐλλογέω), so that's not an hapax legomena.

Posts 5
robin riley | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 27 2015 7:07 PM

(Robin)

However, each of these words are ... UNIQUE ... s

o the term is, as defined (by you and others),

rather vague and deficient!  ... Don't you think?

That is, this is a ... Forum ... where thoughts are examined.

So then ... not to  be Irish, my curse, but DO YOU examine?

  

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MJ. Smith | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 27 2015 10:26 PM

Blame the philologists for this common term (to them). From Wikipedia:

"A hapax legomenon (/ˈhæpəks lɨˈɡɒmɨnɒn/ also /ˈhæpæks/ or /ˈhpæks/; pl. hapax legomena; sometimes abbreviated to hapax, pl. hapaxes) is a word that occurs only once within a context, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to describe a word that occurs in just one of an author's works, even though it occurs more than once in that work. Hapax legomenon is a transliteration of Greek ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, meaning "(something) said (only) once"."

By "term" or word" what is generally meant is the lemma form with the lemma having multiple forms which may appear in manuscript form or surface text form. That is to say "cow" cows", cow's", "cows'" are considered multiple forms of the word cow. But as you look across a variety of languages you are correct that the very idea of word is a very slippery one.

Orthodox Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev: "To be a theologian means to have experience of a personal encounter with God through prayer and worship."

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Mark Barnes | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Sep 28 2015 4:16 AM

robin riley:

However, each of these words are ... UNIQUE ... s

o the term is, as defined (by you and others),

rather vague and deficient!  ... Don't you think?

Most people would agree that "bible" and "bibles" are the same word, but in different forms (one is singular and one is plural). Equally, most people would agree that "go" and "goes" are the same word, but one is used in the first person "I go", and the other in the second person "she goes". That's a pretty common understanding, and that's the logic behind this list. I don't think it's either vague or deficient.

Posts 2465
Lee | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Sep 28 2015 6:42 AM

Mark Barnes:

robin riley:

However, each of these words are ... UNIQUE ... s

o the term is, as defined (by you and others),

rather vague and deficient!  ... Don't you think?

Most people would agree that "bible" and "bibles" are the same word, but in different forms (one is singular and one is plural). Equally, most people would agree that "go" and "goes" are the same word, but one is used in the first person "I go", and the other in the second person "she goes". That's a pretty common understanding, and that's the logic behind this list. I don't think it's either vague or deficient.

In plain terms, folks are particularly interested in the hapax because there could be some uncertainty with the meaning. Viewed in that light, words in different forms (each form occurring once) are less problematic.

Posts 5
robin riley | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Sep 28 2015 10:38 AM

Thankyou guys (Lee, Mark, MJ Smith) for the feedback ... I've compiled a listing of the over 7000 different word "forms" used in Paul's 13 epistles, and am now annotating each of those words, which are unique to Paul, and which are unique in "form" (declinations and parsings), so was wrestling with how tp properly use the term "hapax legomenon." 

It's been an interesting project (and a challenging one, doing it hand over hand without software assistance), and I'll have to, now, adjust, my list annotations to comply with the more definite meaning of hapax legomenon, that MJ Smith provides (see above). But as pointed out, the idea of "word" is a somewhat slippery one. That hapax words are of particular interest, due to the occational uncertainty with meaning, is indeed correct (as Mark pointed out), and sometimes even when the word is used again, but in a different "form," it doesn't always make things less problematic ...compiling this list, and attempting my own translation of Paul's letters has, indeed, been a long term challenge, but a very interesting and fun one.   Thanks again for your feedback; perhaps I could lob a few other questions your way, now and again? Robin Riley
Posts 5
robin riley | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Sep 28 2015 10:46 AM

Thank you for the feedback ... and I apoligise for lumping you in with the other "guys," as I was composing my reply based on the email responses I'd received, and it wasn't until I saw your picture (here) that I realized my mistake. ...Thank you, again, MJ Smith, for the feedback 

Posts 2034
GaoLu | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Oct 4 2015 5:35 AM

Would be nice to have this for the LXX as well. 

Would there be a way to compare LXX hapax logomena with NA27 for example?

According to Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages, Volume 26, 2000, Proverbs alone has 161 hapax legomena.

logosres:jnsl2000;ref=VolumeNumberPage.V_26,_N_2,_p_164;off=614  

Not sure what this resource may have:

Hebrew Hapax Legomena and Septuagint Lexicography, in COX (ed.), 1991, pp. 205–222.

Posts 1
Micheal Curtice | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 2 2016 5:40 PM

Mark, Clearly a lot of work and time went into this. Thank you so very much. Brenda

Posts 3114
Mattillo | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Feb 23 2017 8:23 AM

DELETED

Posts 3
George Sedor | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Aug 25 2017 9:19 AM

Thank you!

Posts 1
William (Bill) Gray | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Aug 25 2017 10:45 AM

Great work, Mark.  Thank you very much.

Posts 4
Justin Alfred | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Aug 25 2017 11:07 AM

Dear, Brother Mark:

I just finished writing and posting my response on the Hebrew Hapax Legomena, and now I am going to do it for the Greek.  I am privileged to be able to teach Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic at the Azusa Pacific Seminary in San Diego, CA, and your work in the MT and the Greek NT will be of tremendous help and assistance to my students who are pursuing both pastoral ministry, as well as academic, teaching positions.  Indeed, what you have done through your diligent and committed work unto the Lord is to allow the Holy Spirit to bring to life even more clearly God's Eternal Word of Truth to a spiritually hungry and needy humanity - keep up your diligent work as to the Lord (Col. 3:23-24).

God bless you,

Justin T. Alfred 

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Mark Barnes | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Aug 25 2017 11:45 AM

Thank you, Justin!

Posts 1
Bishop J.T. Cohen | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Aug 28 2017 3:01 AM

Greetings,

Is 

archēgon ἀρχηγὸν

in Hebrews 2:10 missing?

Is it a hapax in NA 28?

Thanks,

JTC

Posts 243
Claude Brown Jr | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Aug 28 2017 9:14 AM

Thanks Mark very helpful.

Posts 5
Jeffrey Marshall | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Aug 29 2017 3:53 AM

Thanks for the hard work, much appreciated.

Posts 2465
Lee | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Sep 1 2017 2:57 PM

ἀρχηγός is a rare term, but not technically a hapax - Heb. 12:2

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