Why should I buy HALOT?

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Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Posted: Sun, May 5 2019 3:23 PM


I already own TDOT, TWOT, Enhanced BDB, Gesenius', Swanson, and DCH.

Should I purchase HALOT? Regarding Aramaic, wouldn't it better to buy TDOT Vol XVI for half the price?


Posts 11433
DMB | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, May 5 2019 4:04 PM

Depends. Do you need it?  You may have all you actually need.

It's the more modern Gesenius from a usage standpoint. A century's worth.

Your TDOT and TWOT are oriented to how a writer uses the words to achieve theological meaning.  HALOT, Gesenius and BDB are traditional lexicons that research usage, other similar languages, etc. At the moment HALOT's the gold standard.

Again, HALOT aramaic and TDOT XVI serve separate needs. HALOT before TDOT for everyday use.

"God will save his fallen angels and their broken wings He'll mend."

Posts 2848
mab | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, May 5 2019 4:12 PM

HALOT is the core standard reference for Hebrew. At some point you want it in your library along with BAGD for Greek.It's one of the reasons Logos packages them together. 

The mind of man is the mill of God, not to grind chaff, but wheat. Thomas Manton | Study hard, for the well is deep, and our brains are shallow. Richard Baxter

Posts 89
David Staveley | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, May 5 2019 5:58 PM

Manuel Maria:


I already own TDOT, TWOT, Enhanced BDB, Gesenius', Swanson, and DCH.

Should I purchase HALOT? Regarding Aramaic, wouldn't it better to buy TDOT Vol XVI for half the price?


Reasons to buy HALOT:

1. HALOT is not simply the Academic standard for Hebrew Lexicons - it is constantly updated to take advantage of both new evidence and new arguments. None of the other Lexicons around do this.

2. HALOT contains arguments and evidence for Semitic linguistic usage from history that cannot be found anywhere else.

3. Gesenius, that old classic, is repeat with serious errors. From my point of view, it should be avoided.

4. Even though BDB is a brilliant and learned lexicon, it does not attempt to make theological arguments which might or might not have influenced linguistic usage in the Hebrew scriptures. This is its principle failing. And why anyone interested in understanding the theology behind the linguistic changes to words and stems that occur in the Hebrew scriptures, while also being of a certain academic standard that is not achieved by several of the other lexicons, should seriously consider getting HALOT.

5. TDOT is seriously out of date. It makes arguments on theories which are now either disproved altogether or are simply no longer used in current OT research.

Reasons not to bother getting HALOT:

1. If you aren't directly involved in academic research, there really is no compelling reason to get it. It is after all, simply an academic textbook, used principally by academics for academics.

2. BDB is the next best thing to HALOT. It has nearly equivalent academic credentials to HALOT, and if you aren't particularly bothered by the fact that it avoids the thorny question of how much theology influenced linguistic changes to words in the Abjad languages (i.e.Semitic languages), then it will do very nicely indeed.

3. Never ever buy research material just because it is there to be bought, and you feel you "have to" buy it because other people are telling you you just have to have it, otherwise, you are somehow missing out. Don't fall for that type of hype. This is one of the biggest drawbacks that surrounds academic textbooks like HALOT. Ultimately, it is all just that - hype! Never lose sight of the fact that it is all engineered to do one thing and one thing alone: to get you to part with your hard earned cash!

Dr David Staveley Professor of New Testament. Specializing in the Pauline Epistles, Apocalyptic Judaism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Posts 670
Michael S. | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, May 6 2019 3:23 AM

In the Mobile Ed course- Learn how to use Greek and Hebrew, the two main recommended resources are BDAG for Greek and HALOT for Hebrew.

Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, May 6 2019 3:30 AM

Thanks for all answers!

Posts 353

I also recommend the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew: https://www.logos.com/product/29300/the-dictionary-of-classical-hebrew

It's organized differently and covers both the Hebrew Bible and some early Hebrew non-Biblical texts too.

Posts 373
Andrew Biddinger | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, May 6 2019 4:09 PM

Donald Antenen (Faithlife):

I also recommend the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew: https://www.logos.com/product/29300/the-dictionary-of-classical-hebrew

It's organized differently and covers both the Hebrew Bible and some early Hebrew non-Biblical texts too.

How does that compare to HALOT in quality?

Posts 11433
DMB | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, May 6 2019 5:23 PM

Andrew Biddinger:
How does that compare to HALOT in quality?

Quality of scholarly work; HALOT

Quality of tagging: HALOT (per earlier forum comments about DCH)

Quality of formatting: May be wrong, but DCH doesn't have the Logos formatting yet?

But the above is irrelevant. The two products answer separate needs. 

HALOT: largely aims at tracking down meaning, looking at cognate languages, example usages, and so forth.

DCH: largely aimed at every usage (extending into DSS, Ben Sira, etc.)

So, if you're on the academic ladder, and nail it down side, HALOT is your starting point. If you want a nice (lengthy) presentation of every use, then DCH is quite handy.  

"God will save his fallen angels and their broken wings He'll mend."

Posts 399
Puddin’ | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 12:35 AM

Personally, HALOT is my first go-to for lexicography of Semitic languages.  

All Hebrew professors that I personally listen to and am currently taking class from strongly urge the acquisition of HALOT (as has already been mentioned).

It is equivalent to the BDAG of the OT corpus.

Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:11 AM

Thanks for all answers. To clarify and enrich the thread, these are entries from a random word (גלה) in several dictionaries. I'd appreciate if you can post the entry in HALOT (and any other lexicons/dictionaries if you wish):

Dictionary of Classical Hebrew

  גלה vb. reveal—Qal Pf. גָּלָה, גָּלְתָה, גָּלִ֫יתָ (גָּלִ֫יתָה), גָּלִ֫יתִי, גָּלוּ; impf. (יִ֫גֶל) יִגְלֶה, אֶגְלֶה, יִגְלוּ; + waw וַיִּ֫גֶל; impv. גְּלֵה; ptc. (גּוֹלֶה) גֹּלֶה, (גּוֹלָה) גֹּלָה, Q גולת, גֹּלִים, גָּלוּי; inf. גָּלֹה, גְּלוֹת—1a. active, uncover ear, i.e. inform; at Am 3:7; Pr 20:19 only, reveal secret.
  <SUBJ> Y. 1 S 9:15; 2 S 7:27‖1 C 17:25; Am 3:7; Jb 33:16; 36:10 (+ אמר say) 36:15 (+ חלץ pi. deliver) CD 22, 14; 1QH 121; 238 ([גליתה]) 64; 1117; 1222 ([גליתה]) 1234; 133; 184, 19.20.25; 1QH fr. 212; 47, 12; 510; 4QBarka 29, אֵל God CD 313; 4Q413 14; 4Q418 123.24, Boaz Ru 4:4, Jonathan 1 S 20:12, 13, Zedekiah 4QMMTe 1119, Jerusalem 4QMMTe 1119, אִישׁ man 4QCata 59; 4QDe 9.213, אָב father, i.e. Saul 1 S 20:2, priest 1 S 22:17 (+ ידע know), slanderer Pr 20:19, בַּת daughter CD 510, נָבִיא prophet 1QS 816; 4QSd 28 ([גלו הנביאים]), צַדִּיק righteous one GnzPs 11, צֶדֶק righteousness 1QMyst 1.16; 4QMystb 36 (יגל[ה]), רָשָׁע wicked one GnzPs 11, רֶשַׁע wickedness 1QMyst 1.15; 4QMystb 35, חֹשֶׁךְ darkness 1QMyst 1.15, כָּבוֹד glory of Israel 4QpNah 3.34, מַעֲשֶׂה deed 4QpNah 3.33, שֶׂכֶל insight 4QMysta 86, עַיִן eye Nm 24:4, 16, psalmist/worshipper 4QDa 2.22, 14 ([אג]ל[ה]); subj. not specified, 1 S 22:8, 8 (both אֵין גֹּלֶה none reveals; + חלה be weak) Pr 20:19; 1QH 512; 1QH fr. 551; 1Q26.14; 1QMyst 21; 4QpIsae 13; 4QapPsb 3310; 4Q417 1.126; 4Q418 1842; 4Q423 52; 4QHoda 7.119; 4QHodb 362.
  <OBJ> אֹזֶן ear 1 S 9:15; 20:2, 12, 13; 22:8, 8, 17; 2 S 7:27‖1 C 17:25; Jb 33:16; 36:10, 15; Ru 4:4; CD 22; 1QH 121; 64; 1222 ([אוזנם]) 184, 20; 1QH fr. 47, 12; 510; 4QDa 2.22; 4QMysta 86; 4Q418 123.24; 1842; 4Q 423 52; 4QHodb 362, עַיִן eye CD 214; 1QH 1820; 4QDa 2.214, לֵב heart 1QH 1234; 1825, מָאוֹר luminary 1QH fr. 212, כְּנַף skirt 11QT 6612, 13, עֶרְוָה nakedness CD 510, יֵשַׁע salvation 1QH 512, מִשְׁפָּט judgment 1QNoah 22 ([גלו]), תּוֹרָה law 4QpIsae 13, אֱמֶת truth 4QBarka 29, שָׁלוֹם peace 4QBarka 29, רָז mystery 1QH 133; 4QDe 9.213, סוֹד secret Am 3:7; Pr 20:19, סתר ni. ptc. that which is hidden CD 314; 1QH fr. 551; 4QHoda 7.119, פלא ni. ptc. that which is extraordinary 1QH 1117.
  <PREP> לְ of direction, to, in the direction of, + Israel 4QpNah 3.33; 4QBarka 2, גּוֹי nation 4QDe 9.213, מוּסָר discipline Jb 36:10, psalmist 1QH 1117; בְּ of instrument, by (means of), + לַחַץ oppression Jb 36:15, רוּחַ spirit 1QS 816; כְּ as, + שֶׁמֶשׁ sun 1QMyst 1.16; 4QMystb 36 (כש[מש]); אֶל to, + עֶבֶד servant Am 3:7, נָבִיא prophet Am 3:7; מִפְּנֵי from before, + צֶדֶק righteousness 1QMyst 1.15; 4QMystb 35, אוֹר light 1QMyst 1.15.
  1b. passive, be revealed, <SUBJ> פַּתְשֶׁגֶן copy of document Est 3:14=8:13. <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + עַם people Est 3:14=8:13.
  1c. pass. ptc. as noun, opened one, in ref. to copy of deed of sale, <OBJ> לקח take Jr 32:11, 14 (if em. סֵפֶר document of the opened one to הַגָּלוּי; both :: חתם seal). <CSTR> סֵפֶר הַגָּלוּי document of the opened one, i.e. the open document Jr 32:14 (or del. סֵפֶר). <APP> סֵפֶר document Jr 32:11, 14 (if em.). <ADJ> זֶה this Jr 32:14 (or del. זֶה).
  2a. usu. be exiled, go into exile, also depart, disappear, of joy, glory, grass, produce, <SUBJ> Ittai 2 S 15:19, Israel 2 K 17:23; Ezk 39:23; Am 7:11=17, Judah 2 K 25:21‖Jr 52:27; Lm 1:3, אֶרֶץ land of Israel Jg 18:30, Jerusalem Jr 1:3, Gilgal Am 5:5, בַּעֲלָה lady Na 2:8 (if em.; see Pu.), עַם people Is 5:13, of Aram Am 1:5, שַׁאֲנָן tranquil (one) Am 6:7 (+ סור depart), בֵּן son Mc 1:16, of humankind, i.e. Ezekiel Ezk 12:3 (+ יוֹמָם by day) 12:3, כָּבוֹד glory 1 S 4:21, 22; Ho 10:5, מָשׂוֹשׂ joy Is 24:11 (+ ערב be evening), יְבוּל produce Jb 20:28 (or em. גלל roll; + נגר ni. be poured), חָצִיר grass Pr 27:25 (or em. עלה go up; + ראה ni. be seen). <PREP> לְ appar. from or perh. in respect of, + מָקוֹם place 2 S 15:19 (ms מִן from); בְּ of place/time, in, at, during, + רֹאשׁ head of exiles Ho 6:7, חֹדֶשׁ month Jr 1:3, of cause, on account of, + עָוֹן iniquity Ezk 39:23; מִן of direction, from, + Israel 1 S 4:21, 22, מָקוֹם place Ezk 12:3, עַם people Ho 10:5, ישׁב ptc. one who dwells in Mareshah Mc 1:16, of cause, on account of, + עֳנִי affliction Lm 1:3, עֲבֹדָה labour Lm 1:3;* אֶל to, + מָקוֹם place Ezk 12:3, מֵעַל from (upon), + אֲדָמָה earth 2 K 17:23; 25:21‖Jr 52:27; Am 7:11, 17; עַד unto, + יוֹם day 2 K 17:23; לְעֵינֵי in the presence of, + בַּיִת house(hold) Ezk 12:3, 3; with -ה of direction, to, + Assyria 2 K 17:3, Kir Am 1:5. <COLL> גָּלֹה יִגְלֶה Israel/Gilgal will indeed be exiled Am 5:5; 7:11=17.
  2b. ptc. (masc. 2 K 24:14; Is 49:21; Am 6:7, fem. Is 49:21; Na 3:10) as unitary noun, exile i.e. one who goes into exile, <NOM CL> אֲנִי … גֹּלָה I was … an exile Is 49:21. <OBJ> גלה hi. exile 2 K 24:14 (or em. גּוֹלֶה to גּוֹלָה diaspora, as §2c). <CSTR> רֹאשׁ גֹּלִים head of exiles Am 6:7. <APP> שַׂר prince 2 K 24:14 (or em.), גִּבּוֹר mighty (one) 2 K 24:14 (or em.). <PREP> לְ as Na 3:10. <COLL> עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים גּוֹלֶה ten thousand exiles 2 K 24:14(Qr) (or em.).
  2c. fem. ptc. as collective noun, exile(s), diaspora; perh. also as abstract, (state of) exile (e.g. 1 C 5:22), <SUBJ> גלה ho. be exiled Est 2:6, pu. be exiled Jr 29:4 (if em. hi. exile diaspora), עלה ni. be taken up Ezr 1:11 (or em. hi. take up diaspora), שׁוב go back 1QM 13, ישׁב dwell Ezk 3:15, 15, לחם ni. fight 1QM 12, שׁמע hear Jr 29:20.
  <OBJ> גלה hi. exile 2 K 24:14 (if em. masc. ptc. [an] exile) Jr 29:4 (or em. pu. be exiled) 29:7, 14; Est 2:6; Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6, הלך hi. take 2 K 24:15 (‖ יְרוּשָׁלִַם Jerusalem, שַׂר prince; or em. גּוֹלָה exile), בוא hi. bring 2 K 24:16, נהג lead 1QIsaa 204 (MT גָּלוּת diaspora), עלה hi. take up Ezr 1:11 (if em. ni. be taken up), שׁוב hi. take back Jr 28:6, שׁלח pi. send away Jr 29:20, בטח hi. cause to trust Jr 29:31. <CSTR> גולת כוש diaspora of Cush 1QIsaa 204, גולת המדבר exiles of the wilderness 1QM 12, גולת בני exiles of the sons of 1QM 13; מוֹצָאֵי גּוֹלָה goings out of, i.e. those going out as, diaspora Ezk 12:4, שְׁבִי הַגּוֹלָה captivity of the diaspora Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6, קְהַל הַגּוֹלָה assembly of the diaspora Ezr 10:8, בְּנֵי הַגּוֹלָה sons of the diaspora Ezr 4:1; 6:19, 20; 8:35; 10:7, 16, זִקְנֵי הַגּוֹלָה elders of the diaspora Jr 29:1, כְּלֵי גוֹלָה vessels of the diaspora Jr 46:19; Ezk 12:3, 4, 7, מַעַל הַגּוֹלָה transgression of the diaspora Ezr 9:4; 10:6, כָּל־הַגּוֹלָה all the diaspora Jr 28:6; 29:4, 20, 31 (mss lack כָּל־).
  <APP> אִישׁ man 2 K 24:16, אִשָּׁה woman, i.e. king’s wife 2 K 24:15, אֵם king’s mother 2 K 24:15, אַיִל leader 2 K 24:15(Qr), סָרִיס eunuch 2 K 24:15, גִּבּוֹר mighty (one) 2 K 24:16, חָרָשׁ artisan 2 K 24:16, מַסְגֵּר smith 2 K 24:16.
  <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + אמר say Jr 29:4, נבא ni. prophesy Jr 29:31, שׁלח send Jr 29:31; בְּ of place, in, among, + הלך go Jr 48:11; 49:3; Ezk 12:11; 25:3; Am 1:15, יצא go out Jr 29:16; 48:7; Zc 14:2; מִן of direction, from, + שׁוב go back Ezr 6:21; אֶל to, + בוא come Ezk 3:11, 15, hi. bring Ezk 11:24, דבר pi. speak Ezk 11:25; עַד until (the time of), + ישׁב dwell 1 C 5:22; עַל to, + שׁלח send Jr 29:31; מֵאֵת from with, + לקח take Zc 6:10 (or em. מֵאֵת to מַתְּנֹת gifts of or מַשְּׂאֹת tributes of the diaspora); עִם with, + גלה ho. be exiled Est 2:6; בְּתוֹךְ among Ezk 1:1.
  <ANT> §1c חתם seal.
  Ni. Pf. נִגְלָה, נִגְלָֽתָה, נִגְלֵ֫יתִי, נִגְלוּ, נִגְלִ֫ינוּ; impf. יִגָּלֶה, (תִּגָּל) תִּגָּלֶה, יִגָּלוּ; + waw 3fs וַתִּגָּלֶה, וַיִּגָּלוּ; impv. הִגָּלוּ; ptc. נִגְלָה, נגְלֹת; inf. נִגְלֹה, נִגְלֹות, הִגָּלוֹת—1a. be revealed, be uncovered, reveal oneself,* uncover oneself; also be removed (Is 38:12), depart from prison (Is 49:9).
  <SUBJ> Y. Gn 35:7; 1 S 2:27; 3:21 (+ ראה ni. be seen) Is 22:14, כָּבוֹד glory of Y. Is 40:5 (+ ראה see) Si 42:16(B), זְרוֹעַ arm of Y. Is 53:1 (+ אמן hi. believe), סֵפֶר scroll CD 55, דָּבָר word 1 S 3:7 (+ ידע know) Dn 10:1, פֶּלֶא marvel 4QShirShabc 414 ([נגלי פלא]), דַּעַת knowledge 1QpHab 111, יֵשַׁע salvation CD 2020, צְדָקָה righteousness Is 56:1 (‖ בוא come) CD 2020, Jonathan and his armour bearer 1 S 14:8, 11, מֶלֶךְ king 2 S 6:20 (+ כבד ni. be honoured), עֶרְוָה nakedness Ex 20:26; Is 47:3 (‖ ראה ni.) Ezk 16:36 (or em. pi. reveal; ‖ שׁפך ni. be poured [or em. חשׂף bare]) 16:57(mss) 23:29, שׁוּל edge (of garment) Jr 13:22 (‖ חמס ni. be oppressed), דּוֹר abode Is 38:12 (or em. גלל ni. be rolled; ‖ נסע ni. be pulled up), עָוֹן iniquity Ho 7:1, פֶּשַׁע sin Ezk 21:29 (‖ ראה ni.), רָעָה wickedness Ho 7:1; Pr 26:26 (:: כסה ni. be covered [or em. pi. uncover]) Ezk 16:57 (mss עֶרְוָה nakedness), מוֹסָד foundation of earth 2 S 22:16‖Ps 18:16, יְסֹד foundation of wall Ezk 13:14, שַׁעַר gate of death Jb 38:17 (+ ראה see), שֶׁמֶשׁ sun Si 42:16(B, M), אֶחָד one of the fools 2 S 6:20, אֲשֶׁר one who is in darkness Is 49:9 (‖ יצא go out), כֹּל all CD 1513; 1QS 19; 59; 81, 15; 913; 15, 19; 4QSb 57; 8.13 (both [הנגלה]) 4QSd 1.16; 4QSd 27 ([הנגלה]) 4QSd 3.24; 4QSe 1.28; 1.38; 4QDa 17.14; 4QDe 10.26; subj. not specified, Dt 29:28 (הַנִּגְלֹת those that are revealed; + סתר ni. be concealed) Is 23:1.
  <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + Israelites Dt 29:28, Israel 1QpHab 111; 1QS 919, Job Jb 38:17, Daniel Dn 10:1, אִישׁ man 4QSb 8.13 ([כול הנגלה להם]), בֵּן son Dt 29:28; 1QS 59, רַב great one 4QDe 10.26, יַחַד community 4QSe 1.318, אֳנִיָּה ship Is 23:1, of time, at, + עֵת time 1QS 913, concerning, + מוֹעֵד appointed time 1QS 19; בְּ of place, in, + Shiloh 1 S 3:21, קָהָל assembly Pr 26:26, אֹזֶן ear Is 22:14, of time, in, at, during 4Q3179, + עֵת time 1QS 913, עֲשָׂרָה (day) ten 4Q31712, עַשְׁתֵּי עָשָׂר (day) eleven 4Q31713 (בעש[תי עשר]), of benefit, to, for, + תַּזְנוּת fornication Ezk 16:36; מִן of direction, from, + Hezekiah Is 38:12 (or em. גלל ni. be rolled), תּוֹרָה law CD 1513; 1QS 59; 81; 4QSb 57 ([כול הנגלה מן תורה]) 4QSd 1.17 ([תורה]) 4QSe 1.28; 4QDa 17.14; 4QDe 10.26; אֶל to, + אִישׁ man 1 S 14:8, Jacob Gn 35:7, Samuel 1 S 3:21, בַּיִת house of your father 1 S 2:27 (mss לְ to), מַצָּב garrison 1 S 14:11; עַל over or to, + מִזְבֵּחַ altar Ex 20:26 (Sam אֵלָיו to him, i.e. Y.), appar. to Is 53:1, + מַעֲשֶׂה deed Si 42:16(B); לְעֵינֵי in the presence of, + אַמָּה female servant 2 S 6:20, עֶבֶד servant 2 S 6:20. <COLL> הֲנִגְלֹה נִגְלֵיתִי shall I indeed be revealed? 1 S 2:27, כְּהִגָּלוֹת נִגְלֹות just as fools uncover themselves 2 S 6:20.
  1b. ptc. as noun, revealed matter, <OBJ> עשׂה do, i.e. handle 1QS 512, ידע know 4QPrFêtesb 24 (והנגל[ות]).
  <SYN> בוא come, יצא go out, ראה ni. be seen, שׁפך ni. be poured, חמס ni. be oppressed, נסע ni. be pulled up.
  <ANT> כסה ni. be covered.
  Pi. Pf. גִּלָּה, גִּלְּתָה, גִּלִּית, (גִּלִּ֫יתִי) גִּלֵּ֫יתִי, גִּלּוּ; impf. יְגַלֶּה, 2ms תְּגַלֶּה (תְּגַלֵֽה, תְּגָֽל), תְּגַלִּי, אֲגַלֶּה, יְגַלּוּ, Si נגלה; + waw וַיְגַל, 3fs וַתְּגַל, וְגִּלִּית; impv. גַּל, גַּלִּי; ptc. מְגַלֶּה; inf. גַּלּוֹת—uncover, expose, reveal, disclose.
  <SUBJ> Y. Nm 22:31; Jr 33:6 (+ רפא heal) 49:10 (‖ חשׂף bare) Ezk 16:37; Ho 2:12; Mc 1:6 (+ נגר hi. pour) Na 3:5; Ps 98:2 (‖ ידע hi. cause to know) 119:18, 22 (or em. גלל roll) Jb 12:22 (‖ יצא hi. take out; mss אֱלוֹהַּ God for י׳ Y.) Lm 4:22 (+ פקד visit) Si 3:20; 42:19 (‖ חוה pi. declare), appar. Is 22:8 (or em. וַיְגַל and he revealed to וַיְגַלּוּ and they, i.e. riders, uncovered), חָכְמוֹת wisdom Si 4:18 (+ אשׁר pi. direct), Jeremiah Jr 11:20=20:12 (or em. גלל), נָבִיא prophet Lm 2:14 (+ חזה see), אִישׁ man Lv 18:6; 20:11, 17, 18, 20, 21; Dt 23:1; Ezk 22:10 (if em. גִּלָּה he, i.e. father, has revealed to גִּלּוּ they, i.e. men, have revealed), בֵּן son of Israel Lv 18:7+15t (mss + 16t) 20:19, of Assyria Ezk 23:10, בַּת daughter of Babylon Is 47:2, 2 (‖ חשׂף bare), of Zion Is 16:3 (:: סתר pi. conceal), Oholibah Ezk 23:18, 18, Ruth Ru 3:4, 7 (both + בוא come, שׁכב lie down), אִשָּׁה woman Lv 20:18, שׁכב ptc. one who lies down with father’s wife Dt 27:20, פָּרָשׁ rider Is 22:8 (if em.), שׂנא ptc. one who hates Si 12:11, הלך one who goes as a slanderer Pr 11:13 (:: כסה pi. cover), אֶרֶץ earth Is 26:21 (:: כסה pi.), שָׁמַיִם heaven Jb 20:27 (+ קום htpo. raise oneself); subj. not specified, Is 57:8 (ms pu. be exiled; + עלה go up) Jb 41:5 (+ בוא) Pr 25:9; Si 8:19; 15:20; 43:28(Bmg).
  <OBJ> עֶרְוָה nakedness Lv 18:6+19t (mss +20t) 20:11, 17, 18, 19 (both + ערה hi. expose) 20:20, 21; Ezk 16:37; 22:10; 23:10 (+ לקח take, הרג kill) 23:18, מָקוֹר source of menstrual blood Lv 20:18, דָּם blood Is 26:21, פָּנִים face, i.e. outer garment Jb 41:5, כָּנָף wing, i.e. edge of father’s garment Dt 23:1; 27:20, שׁוּל edge (of garment) Na 3:5, צַמָּה veil Is 47:2, עַיִן eye Nm 22:31; Ps 119:18, שׁוֹק thigh Is 47:2, מַרְגְּלוֹת place of feet Ru 3:4, 7, עָמֹק deep (place) Jb 12:22, יְסֹד foundation Mc 1:6, מָסָךְ covering Is 22:8, מִסְתָּר secret place Jr 49:10; Si 4:18, נדד ptc. wanderer Is 16:3, appar. Y. Si 43:28, נַבְלוּת immodesty Ho 2:12, תַּזְנוּת fornication Ezk 23:18, חֶרְפָּה reproach Ps 119:22, בּוּז contempt Ps 119:22 (or em. גלל roll), עָוֹן iniquity Jb 20:27, לֵב heart Si 8:19, סוֹד secret Pr 11:13; 25:9; Si 3:20; 15:20, רָז secret Si 12:11, חֵקֶר investigation Si 42:19, רִיב dispute Jr 11:20=20:12, צְדָקָה righteousness Ps 98:2, עֲתֶרֶת abundance of peace and truth Jr 33:16 (or em. עֵת רֶוַח time of relief); obj. not specified, Is 57:8 (ms pu. be exiled).
  <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + עָנָו humble (one) Si 3:20, בָּשָׂר flesh Si 8:19, בַּיִת house Jr 33:6, one who attends to wisdom Si 4:18; בְּ of place, in, + עִיר city Ezk 22:10; מִן of direction, from, + צַלְמָוֶת deep shadow Jb 12:22; מֵאֵת from (with) or perh. because of or by, + Y. Is 57:8; אֶל to, + Y. Jr 11:20=20:12 (or em.), אהב pi. ptc. lover Ezk 16:37; עַל concerning, + עָוֹן iniquity Lm 2:14, חַטָּאת sin Lm 4:22, over, + פָּנִים face, i.e. lift up lower edges of garment over face so as to reveal them Na 3:5, מֵעַל from (upon) worshipper Ps 119:22 (or em. גלל roll); לְעֵינֵי in the presence of, + אהב pi. ptc. lover Ho 2:12, גּוֹי nation Ps 98:2.
  <SYN> חשׂף bare, יצא hi. take out, ידע hi. cause to know, חוה pi. declare.
  <ANT> סתר pi. conceal, כסה pi. cover.
  Pu. Pf. גֻּלְּתָה; ptc. מְגֻלָּה, Si מגולין—be revealed, be exiled, <SUBJ> הֻצַּב Huzzab Na 2:8 (וְהֻצַב גֻּלְּתָה הֹעֲלָ֑תָה and Huzzab was exiled, was taken up; or understand הֻצַּב as נצב ho. be erected, i.e. while he was established, she was exiled; or em. וְהֻצְאָה גָּלְתָה בַעֲלָתֹה and his lady was taken out, exiled or הוּצְאָה בְּגָלוּת הַבַּעֲלָה the lady was taken out into exile), מַעֲשֶׂה deed Si 16:15, תּוֹכַחַת reproof Pr 27:5 (:: סתר pu. be concealed). <PREP> תַּחַת beneath, + שָׁמַיִם heaven Si 16:15.
  <ANT> סתר pu. be concealed.
  Hi. Pf. הֶגְלָה (הֶגְלָם), הִגְלִ֫יתָ, הִגְלֵ֫יתִי, הִגְלוּ, הִגְלִיתֶם; + waw וְהִגְלָם, וַיֶּ֫גֶל (וַיַּגְלֶ֫הָ, וַיַּגְלֵם), וְהִגְלֵיתִי, וַיַּגְלוּם; inf. הַגְלֹות (בַּגְלֹותוֹ, הַגְלוֹתֵךְ, הַגְלוֹתָם)—(take into) exile.
  <SUBJ> Y. 2 K 17:11; Jr 29:4 (or em. ho. be exiled) 29:7, 14; Am 5:27; Lm 4:22; 1 C 5:41, Tiglath-pileser 2 K 15:29; 1 C 5:6, 26, מֶלֶךְ king 2 K 15:29; 16:9; 17:6, 26 (+ ישׁב hi. accommodate) 18:11 (+ נחה hi. lead [or em. נוח hi. place]) 24:14, 15 (+ הלך hi. take into exile) Jr 20:4 (+ נכה hi. strike) 24:1; 27:20; Est 2:6; Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6; 1 C 5:6, 26, עֶבֶד servant of king of Assyria 2 K 17:27, 28, 33, רַב great (one), i.e. commander 2 K 25:11‖Jr 39:9‖ 52:15; Jr 52:30, Nebuchadnezzar 2 K 24:14, 15; Jr 24:1; 27:20; 29:1; 52:28; Est 2:6; Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6, Nebuzaradan 2 K 25:11‖Jr 39:9‖ 52:15; Jr 52:30, כַּסְדִי Chaldaean(s) Jr 43:3 (+ מות hi. kill), Gaza Am 1:6; subj. not specified, 2 K 17:28, 33; Jr 22:12; 1 C 8:6, 7.
  <OBJ> Israel 2 K 17:6; 18:11; Ezk 39:28; Am 5:27 (בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל house of Israel), Judah Jr 20:4; 1 C 5:41, יְהוּדִי Judaean Jr 52:30, Jerusalem 2 K 24:14; 1 C 5:41, בַּת daughter of Zion Lm 4:22, Ijon 2 K 15:29, Abel-beth-maacah 2 K 15:29, Janoah 2 K 15:29, Kedesh 2 K 15:29, Hazor 2 K 15:29, Gilead 2 K 15:29, Galilee 2 K 15:29, אֶרֶץ land of Naphtali 2 K 15:29, Damascus 2 K 16:9, גּוֹי nation 2 K 17:11, 26, 33, עַם people Jr 29:1; 43:3; 52:28, גלה fem. ptc. diaspora 2 K 24:14 (if em. masc. ptc. [an] exile) Jr 29:4 (or em. ho.) 29:7, 14; Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6; Est 2:6, שְׁאֵרִית remnant 2 C 36:20, יֶתֶר remnant 2 K 25:11, 11‖Jr 39:9, 9‖52:15, 15; Jr 29:1.
  Ahijah 1 C 8:7, Azariah Jr 43:3, Beerah 1 C 5:6, Gera 1 C 8:7, Jeconiah Jr 22:12; 24:1; 27:20; Est 2:6, Jehoiachin 2 K 24:15, Johanan Jr 43:3, Naaman 1 C 8:7, Shallum Jr 22:12.
  מֶלֶךְ king Jehoiachin Jr 24:1; 27:20; Est 2:6, שַׂר prince 2 K 24:14; Jr 24:1, כֹּהֵן priest 2 K 17:27, 28 (in both אֶחָד מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים one of the priests) Jr 29:1, נָבִיא prophet Jr 29:1, חֹר noble Jr 27:20, רֹאשׁ head 1 C 8:6, גִּבּוֹר mighty (one) 2 K 24:14, חָרָשׁ artisan 2 K 24:14; Jr 24:1, מַסְגֵּר smith 2 K 24:14; Jr 24:1, נפל ptc. one who falls 2 K 25:11‖Jr 39:9‖52:15, גָּלוּת diaspora Am 1:6, בֵּן son Jr 24:1; 27:20; 22:12; 1 C 5:6; 8:6, נֶפֶשׁ soul Jr 52:30.
  <PREP> לְ introducing object, + Reubenites 1 C 5:26, Manassites 1 C 5:26, Gadites 1 C 5:26, of direction, to, + Babylon Ezr 2:1‖Ne 7:6(ms); בְּ of place/time, in(to), at, during, + מָקוֹם place Jr 22:12, שָׁנָה year of reign Jr 52:28, 30; מִן of direction, from, + Samaria 2 K 17:28, Jerusalem Jr 24:1; 27:20; 29:1, 4, שָׁם there 2 K 17:27, 33; Jr 29:14; אֶל to, + Babylon 2 C 36:20, Manahath 1 C 8:6; מִפְּנֵי from before, + בֵּן son of Israel 2 K 17:11; בְּיַד by means of, + Nebuchadnezzar 1 C 5:41; מֵהָלְאָה לְ to beyond, + Damascus Am 5:27; with -ה of direction, to, + Babylon 2 K 24:15; Jr 20:4; 27:20; 29:1, 4 (or em. ho.) 39:9; 43:3 (both without -ה), Assyria 2 K 15:29; 17:6; 18:11, Kir 2 K 16:9, שָׁם there Jr 29:7.
  Ho. Pf. הָגְלָה, הָגְלְתָה (הָגְלָת), הָגְלוּ; ptc. מֻגְלִים—be exiled, <SUBJ> Judah Jr 13:19, 19 (or em. גָּלוּת diaspora) 1 C 9:1, גָּלוּת diaspora Jr 13:19 (if em.) 40:1, גלה fem. ptc. diaspora Jr 29:4 (if em. hi. exile diaspora) Est 2:6, אִישׁ man Est 2:6; subj. not specified, Jr 40:7 (מֵאֲשֶׁר from among those that had not been exiled). <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + Babylon 1 C 9:1; מִן of direction, from, + Jerusalem Est 2:6; עִם with, + מֶלֶךְ king Jeconiah Est 2:6, גלה fem. ptc. diaspora Est 2:6; with -ה of direction, to, + Babylon 40:1, 7.
  Htp. Impf. Si יתגלה; + waw וַיִּתְגַּל; inf. הִתְגַּלֹּות—reveal oneself, expose oneself, be revealed, <SUBJ> Noah Gn 9:21, לֵב heart of fool Pr 18:2 (or em. בְּהִתְגַּלֹּות in revealing oneself to בְּהוֹלְלוֹת in follies of heart, חבר ptc. one who is joined to impudent woman Si 12:15. <PREP> לְ of direction, to, + בֵּן son Si 12:15 (ב[נ]י); בְּתוֹךְ inside, + אֹהֶל tent Gn 9:21.
  Also 4QProph 32 (תגלה) 4QSapb 64 (יגל).*
  ► גִּלָּיוֹן tablet, גָּלוּת diaspora.

The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew 2, 348-352.

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Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:11 AM

Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament

  גָּלָה gālāh;* גּוֹלָה gôlāh; גָּלוּת gālûth

Contents: I. Occurrences, Meaning, Etymology: 1. Outside the OT; 2. In the OT. II. Secular Usage: 1. As a Term Meaning “To Be Away,” “Go Away,” “Lead Away”; 2. As a Term Meaning “To Be Open,” “To Open,” “Uncover”: a. To Become Visible; b. To Become Audible. III. Religious Usage: 1. Parallel Ideas; 2. “To Be Open,” “To Open,” “Uncover,” Referring to: a. The Eyes (Vision); b. The Ears (Audition); c. A Secret; d. Yahweh Himself. IV. Theological Considerations: 1. glh and the Theme, “The Revelation of God in the OT”; a. Distribution of the Term; b. Its Contribution to This Theme; 2. golah As a Designation for the Postexilic Cult Community.

  I. Occurrences, Meaning, Etymology

1. Outside the OT. Outside the OT, the verb glh occurs in Ugaritic and Phoenician. It is also found in Egyptian Aramaic, Jewish Aramaic, Syriac, Mandean, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Akkadian (as a foreign word).1 Arabic has a noun derived from this root, ǧāliyat, and Jewish Aramaic has a noun derived from it, glwt.
All six examples of gly in Ugaritic are in the perfect tense of the root. Five of these appear in the stereotyped expression, y/tgly š2d ȝl wy/tbȝ qrš mlk ʾbšnm,2 “he/she arrived at the mountain of El and came to the hall of the king, the father of years (?).” As here, so also in the last section of CTA, 16 [II K], VI, 4, gly is closely connected with bʾ, which is used four times in all in lines 2–3, 5, and which stands right next to gly in line 4: tgly wtbȝ Gordon translates this verb, “to leave.”3 Thus, he thinks that gly is cognate to Arab. ǧalā, “to emigrate,” and that it is not synonymous with, but rather antithetical to, bʾ, “to come, arrive.”4 However, several Ugaritologists advocate an interpretation of gly synonymous with bʾ, as, “to go after,”5 “arrive at,”6 “enter,”7 “break in, penetrate,”8 “approach, arrive at, enter,”9 “step over (a threshold),”10 or the like.
In Phoenician, the imperfect of the root glh occurs. The Aḥiram Inscription has as the object of glh, ʾrn,11 and the Yeḥawmilk Inscription, mstrv.12 In both cases, glh denotes the “uncovering” or “opening” of a sarcophagus or a hiding place.
In the other Semitic languages, the verb means “to open,” “make manifest,” or “emigrate,” “go into exile,” and the nouns are rendered by “colony of emigrants,” or by “exile” or “exiles.”

2. In the OT. The verb occurs about 180 times in Biblical Hebrew, 9 times in Biblical Aramaic, and 40 times in the Qumran literature. In Biblical Hebrew, the verb appears 44 times in the qal, 30 in the niphal, 57 in the piel, twice in the pual, 38 in the hiphil, 7 in the hophal, and twice in the hithpael. In Biblical Aramaic, it is found 7 times in the peal and twice in the haphel. The noun golah occurs 42 times in the Hebrew OT and twice in the Qumran literature (1QM 1:2, 3), and the noun galuth is found 15 times in the Hebrew OT, 4 times in the Aramaic part of the OT, and once in the Qumran material (1QpHab 11:6).
Arranged according to the frequency of occurrence, the Greek words used to translate the verb forms of glh are these: the qal-apokalýptō, “to uncover, reveal,” aichmalōtízō, “to capture,” aichmálōtos, “captive,” apoikízō, “to send away, emigrate,” metoikízo, “to deport, resettle,” aichmalōsía, “captivity,” aichmalōteúō, “to capture,” anakalýptō, “to uncover, unveil,” anegnōsménos, “read aloud, published,” apokinéō, “to remove, put away from,” apoikía, “colony,” eisakoúō, “to listen to, obey,” helkýō, “to drag or draw out,” epitássō, “to order, command,” metoikesía, “deportation,” prostássō, “to order, command,” paúō, “to stop, cease”; niphal—apokalýptō, “to uncover, reveal,” anakalýptō, “to uncover, unveil,” ekkalýptō, “to uncover, reveal,” anoígō, “to open,” apérchomai, “to go away, depart,” epiphaínomai, “to appear,” phanerós, “visible, clear,” horáō, “to see,” aichmálōtos, “captive,” próstagma deíknymi, “to make know or explain a commandment”; piel—apokalýptō, “to uncover, reveal,” anakalýptō, “to uncover, unveil,” apágō, “to lead away,” katakalýptō, “to cover, veil,” poiéō, “to do, make”; pual—apokalýptō, “to uncover, reveal”; hiphil—apoikízō, “to send away, emigrate,” metoikízō, “to deport, resettle,” metaírō, “to go away,” aichmalōtízō, “to capture”; hophal—apoikízō, “to send away, emigrate,” katoikízō, “to settle, establish”; hithpael-gymnóō, “to strip, lay bare.” This summary makes two things clear. On the one hand, glh has a wide variety of nuances of meaning; and on the other, these nuances revolve around the two basic concepts, “to uncover,” “reveal,” and “to emigrate,” “go away,” “go into captivity.” As Pope correctly remarks,13 there is no serious reason to suppose two different roots glh. Emigration or exile can be understood as an uncovering of the land, and thus “revealing,” “uncovering,” could be the original meaning of glh (cf. Phoen.),14 but one could also argue conversely. This would mean that glh should be interpreted as a verb of motion and traced back to Ugar. gly.
The Heb. nouns golah and galuth, which the LXX usually translates by apoikesía, “emigration,” metoikesía “deportation,” or aichmalōsía, “captivity,” mean “exile” or “those who are exiled, exiles,” and the same is true of the Biblical Aram. noun galu, “exile.” They are derivatives of the root glh meaning “to go into exile,” and are of as little help in determining the original meaning of this root as the occurrences of glh in the other Semitic languages.

II. Secular Usage. That the original meaning of glh must be sought behind the concepts “to reveal,” “uncover,” and “to emigrate,” “go into exile,” points to the prominent secular meaning of the verb, and thus explains the dominant secular use of this root in the OT.

1. As a Term Meaning “To Be Away,” “Go Away,” “Lead Away.” The roots sur, “to pass away,” in Am. 6:7 and Isa. 49:21, and ʿarabh, “to waste away, vanish,” in Isa. 24:11, are used as synonyms of our verb glh. Hezekiah’s statement, “my dwelling is plucked up (nasaʿ in the niphal) and removed from me” (Isa. 38:12), and the description of the fate of the ungodly in Job 20:28, “the possessions of his house will be carried away, dragged off in the day of God’s wrath,”15 show that glh, which can be connected with min, “from,” or can be used alone, means “to be away” or “go away.”
With the same content, then, glh min occurs in the explanation of Ichabod’s name, “the glory has departed from Israel” (1 S. 4:21, 22); Hos. 10:5, “it (the glory) must depart from it”; Lam. 1:3, “Judah has gone into exile because of affliction and hard servitude”; Mic. 1:16, “they shall go from you into exile”; and the expression “to go into exile away from his land” (glh meʾal ʾadhmatho, 2 K. 17:23; 25:21; Am. 7:11, 17; Jer. 52:27), in connection with which the accusative of place can appear, as in 2 K. 17:23 (so also in 2 K. 24:15; Am. 1:5; with ʾel, “unto,” in Ezk. 12:3). glh, “to go away,” appears alone in Jgs. 18:30 (the land), Isa. 5:13 (my people), Jer. 1:3 (Jerusalem), Ezk. 39:23 (Israel), and Am. 5:5 (Gilgal).
In David’s speech to Ittai, “you are an exile ‘from’ your home” (2 S. 15:19), and in Nah. 2:8 (Eng. v. 7), one should read the qal instead of the pual.16
The hiphil and hophal of glh mean exclusively, “to lead away (into captivity)” (the same is true of the haphel in Aram., Ezr. 4:10; 5:12), or “to be led away,” and almost without exception refer to the exiles of Israel and Judah (otherwise only in 2 K. 16:9: Damascus; Am. 1:6: Gaza; 2 K. 17:11: the dispersion of foreign nations before Israel by Yahweh).

2. As a Term Meaning “To Be Open,” “To Open,” “Uncover.” glh means “to be open,” “to open,” “uncover.” This is also verified by verbs that appear in synonymous parallelism with glh, viz., chasaph, “to strip off” (Isa. 47:2; Jer. 49:10); paqadh, “to punish” (Lam. 4:22); raʾah, “to see” or “be seen” (2 S. 22:16 = Ps. 18:16[15]; Isa. 40:5; 47:3; Nah. 3:5; Job 38:17; cf. Ezk. 16:37; 21:29[24]; Hos. 2:12[10]), and similar terms, but even more clearly by verbs used in antithetic parallelism to glh, viz., chabhah in the niphal, “to hide oneself” (Jer. 49:10); kasah, “to cover,” “to veil” (Isa. 26:21; Prov. 11:13; 26:26), and sathar, “to hide” (Isa. 16:3; Prov. 27:5; cf. Jer. 49:10: mistarav, “his hiding places”). It is also supported by Jer. 32:11, 14, which mentions both the “sealed” (chathum) and the “open” (galuy) deed.

a. To Become Visible. The oracle of salvation in Isa. 49:9 shows that the concepts “to be open” and “to open” are used of the appearance of light or of daylight. Here the prophet says to the prisoners, “Come forth” (tseʾu), and to those who are in darkness, “Come to light” (higgalu). And Job 12:22 praises Yahweh as the God “who uncovers the deeps out of darkness, and brings deep darkness to light.” The most frequent object of glh in the piel (the pass. of which is the niphal) is ʿervah, “shame,” “nakedness.” In this connection, the phrase “to uncover the shame” means either “to commit fornication” (Ex. 20:26; Lev. 18:6–19; 20:11, 17–21; Ezk. 16:36, 37; 22:10), which is emphasized in Ezk. 23:18 by the synonymous parallelism between galah (in the piel) taznuth, “to carry on harlotry openly,” and galah ʿervah, “to uncover (RSV flaunt) nakedness,” or “to rape” (Ezk. 23:10, 29), as is clear from the parallelism between “your nakedness shall be uncovered” and “your shame shall be seen” in Isa. 47:3. The expression “to uncover one’s nakedness” is found in connection with “uncovering the fountain of her blood” in Lev. 20:18, and “uncovering the skirt of his father” in Dt. 23:1(22:30); 27:20. We encounter a series of similar expressions as figures for fornication, shame, and utmost insult in the prophetic literature: Isa. 57:8, “uncover the bed,” Hos. 2:12(10), “uncover lewdness (shame),” Isa. 47:2, “strip off the robe” and “uncover the legs,” and Jer. 13:22 and Nah. 3:5, “lift up the skirts.”
Other objects of glh in the piel, “to uncover,” include “the feet” (Ruth 3:4, 7), “the outer garment” of the crocodile (Job 41:5[13]), “the foundations” of Samaria (Mic. 1:6), “the foundation” of a wall (Ezk. 13:14), “the foundations” of the world (2 S. 22:16 = Ps. 18:16[15]), “the gates” of death (Job 38:17), and “the covering (that served as a protection for Judah)” (Isa. 22:8).

glh in the niphal + ʾel means “to show oneself to someone” (1 S. 14:8, 11: Jonathan and his armorbearer to the Philistines), and + le, “to uncover oneself before someone” (2 S. 6:20: David before his maidens). Again, in these passages glh conveys the idea of becoming visible or becoming seen, as is emphasized even further in 2 S. 6:20 by leʿene, “before the eyes of.” The hithpael also supports this in Gen. 9:21, where Ham saw the nakedness of Noah as he lay in the midst of his tent (v. 22), and in Prov. 18:2, which says that the fool “uncovers his heart,” i.e., “displays his folly.”17

b. To Become Audible. The phrases using glh that have to do with uncovering transgressions, etc., point to the element of hearing in this root. When the OT speaks of uncovering “iniquity (RSV, corruption)” (Hos. 7:1; Job 20:27; Lam. 2:14), “sins” (chattoʾth, Lam. 4:22), “wickedness” (raʾah, Prov. 26:26), “transgressions” (pashaʿ, Ezk. 21:29[24]), and the “blood” of the slain (Isa. 26:21), a legal situation is always assumed (this is explicit in Prov. 26:26, which refers to the “legal assembly,” qahal), in which the hidden crime is discussed. Jeremiah’s desire to see God’s vengeance on his fellow citizens from Anathoth, founded on the statement, “for to thee I have committed my cause” (→ ריב rîbh), also presupposes this kind of situation, inasmuch as it is addressed to Yahweh, “who judgest righteously” (Jer. 11:20; 20:12).18
It is clear that the expression glh → סוד sôdh, “to reveal secrets” (Prov. 11:13; 20:19; 25:9), has in mind speaking, for “to reveal secrets” is to divulge them, and these passages characterize the person who does this as a slanderer in 11:13 and 20:19, and as a gossip in 20:19b.
Finally, another argument that justifies the conclusion that glh, “to be open,” “to open,” includes the twofold concept of becoming visible and becoming audible is that ʿayin, “eye,” and ʾozen, “ear,” both appear as objects of this verb. The expression, “to open the eyes,”19 which, to be sure, is found only in religious contexts, stands in contrast to several occurrences of the expression, “to open someone’s ear,” in the sense of “proclaiming something to someone,”20 in the secular realm: 1 S. 20:2 (Saul to Jonathan); 20:12, 13 (Jonathan to David); 22:8 (twice; Saul’s men to Saul); 22:17 (qere; the priests to Saul); Ruth 4:4 (Boaz to his kinsman who had the right of redemption). This last passage is of interest, because Boaz’s inquiry to his kinsman who had the right of possession with regard to the acquisition of the property of Elimelech, which is introduced by leʾmor, “saying,” follows the expression, “I thought I would tell you of it.”21 We also encounter glh le, “to proclaim something to someone,” “to make known,” in Isa. 23:1 and Est. 3:14.

III. Religious Usage. In the preceding section, in showing the specific meanings of glh, we have already referred to a number of passages which, strictly speaking, use glh in a religious sense, because in these texts Yahweh, Elohim, or the like is subject of glh. The prophetic literature in particular speaks of uncovering the pudenda or something similar.22 Jer. 33:6 should be included in these passages. We may also mention the statements that God sent Israel into exile (2 K. 17:11; Jer. 29:4, 7, 14; Ezk. 39:28; Am. 5:27; Lam. 4:22; 1 Ch. 5:41[6:15]), which are very few in number when compared with the passages in which a human being appears as the subject of glh. All these statements belong to the secular realm directly, and thus indicate that, apart from the changed subject-object relationship, there is no functional difference between the secular and religious usage of glh.

1. Parallel Ideas. In Isa. 56:1, boʾ, “to come,” occurs in synonymous parallelism with glh in the niphal. This is noteworthy, because nowhere else in the OT do these words appear in such a relationship, although they may stand in juxtaposition in the Ugaritic texts.23 In harmony with the secular linguistic usage, Dt. 29:28(29) contrasts the “secret things” with the “things that are revealed.” In the religious realm, we also find examples in which glh is related to verbs meaning “to see,” “look,” “gaze upon”: → ראה rāʾāh in the qal, “to see” (Nu. 22:31; Isa. 40:5); in the niphal, “to appear” (1 S. 3:21); → נבט nābhaṭ in the hiphil, “to behold” (Ps. 119:18); → חזה chāzah, “to see” (Nu. 24:4, 16); as well as to verbs meaning “to speak” and “to hear”: Job 36:10, 11. It is true that there are no examples of glh being used in connection with nabhat and chazah in secular texts. Also, the parallelism between glh and → ידע yādhaʿ, “to know,” in Ps. 98:2 is unique.
This survey shows that the religious usage of glh is closely connected with the secular. But beyond this, it is now at least clearly suggested that when glh is used in the religious realm, it receives a new content which is made explicit by the selection of parallel terms to go with it, which give it the quality of a technical term for revelation in the OT.

2. “To Be Open,” “To Open,” “Uncover.” As we have noted above,24 glh, whose original meaning was “to be open,” “to open,” includes the elements of seeing and hearing. This helps explain why this verb was taken over into religious linguistic usage, because according to OT thought the revelation of God takes place in the form of a vision or an audition or of both together.

a. Referring to the Eyes (Vision). glh is used to describe the state of visionary emotion in the two Yahwistic Songs of Balaam (Nu. 24:4, 16), where it says that the seer “sees the vision of Shaddai, falling down, but having his eyes uncovered.” In spite of the fact that these two verses mention “hearing the words of El and knowing the knowledge of Elyon,” and that on this basis it could be supposed that Balaam not only saw a vision but also heard a divine word, the content of these two songs is against this assumption, for they are presented as descriptions of figures that have been seen or as pictorial events, but not as reproductions of a divine word. If El, or more precisely El Shaddai, here is the author of the vision, in the J narrative it is Yahweh who “opened the eyes of Balaam that he might see the angel standing in the way” (Nu. 22:31), and who thus brought about the following dialogue between the angel and the seer (vv. 32–35). Thus, in contrast to the pure vision in these songs, in the narrative material there is, as it were, a mixture of visionary and auditory elements.
The expression “to open the eyes” is used in a prayer in Ps. 119:18: “Open my eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy Torah (law).” This text does not have in mind a visionary event. The worshipper yearns for “instruction”;25 he prays that understanding of the Torah (law), “judgment” and “knowledge,” may be made known to him in the written word.26 Nor is this passage referring to revelation, although the theme of the knowledge of God and of his acts is a part of its narrower circle. In the postexilic hymn, Ps. 98,27 the “marvelous deeds” of v. 1 are explained in v. 2: “Yahweh has made known his help, he has revealed his righteousness in the sight of the goyim (nations)”; and v. 3 states that “the ends of the earth” see all this, and so they are to praise God with “all the earth” (v. 4). Consequently, revelation is an event in which Yahweh alone is subject. Its content is determined by the proclamation of God’s salvation in his marvelous deeds, by the revelation of his righteousness; and its purpose is to bring foreigners to a knowledge of the divine majesty and thus to an acknowledgment of Yahweh in believing praise.
Finally, the passages in the Aramaic portion of the book of Daniel that use glh in the peal, “to disclose,” “to reveal,” should be mentioned here. Apart from the hymnic expression in 2:22: “he reveals deep and mysterious things,”28 in all the other passages, raz, “mystery,” appears as the object of glh (2:19, 28–30, 47). The way in which God reveals his mystery is in a vision of the night (2:19), which is given to Daniel so that he might tell Nebuchadnezzar what will happen at the end of the days. And since the king ultimately acknowledges Daniel’s God when he hears Daniel’s word (2:47), the determinative elements for revelation as vision also become evident here.

b. Referring to the Ears (Audition). A second sphere of ideas, emphasizing the auditory side of the revelatory event, is suggested by the expression, “to open someone’s ear” (1 S. 9:15; 2 S. 7:27 = 1 Ch. 17:25; Job 33:16; 36:10, 15). That this expression comes from the secular realm is clear from the “dominant concept” of the subject in the Samuel passages, which strongly emphasize that it is Yahweh who is acting here.29 The object of Yahweh’s action is the ear of Samuel (1 S. 9:15), David (2 S. 7:27 = 1 Ch. 17:25), and men (the Job passages). As in secular linguistic usage (Ruth 4:4), this phrase can be connected to the content of the revelation by leʾmor, “saying” (1 and 2 S.), or by vayyoʾmer, “and he said” (Job 36:10), but its meaning can also be clarified by parallel phrases: “they are sealed in their discipline” (RSV, “and he [God] terrifies them with warnings”; 33:16; 36:15), meaning “they turn away from injustice and are saved from the Pit” (33:17), or “to redeem him by his distress.” With regard to 1 S. 9:15, Wagner discusses the question (raised by the secular use of our expression with the meaning “to tell, proclaim something to someone”) whether leʾmor should be understood as “and he said,” and thus opening the ear as purely a hearing event, or whether (as frequently in the OT) it functioned almost as a colon, and consequently this expression denotes not merely a hearing event, but an “apperception event, an understanding, a comprehension, the setting in motion of an important act, that which makes obedience possible.”30 Wagner correctly decides in favor of the latter meaning.31 The Job passages (to which Wagner could also have referred) clearly point in this direction, since they also connect the opening of the ear with obedience.
As we have said, the act of Yahweh that takes place in the opening of the ear sets in motion an act of obedience on the part of man, which is connected with what he has heard from Yahweh. If the Job passages have to do with turning away from sin, the passage 1 S. 9:15f. deals with nothing less than the installation of the kingship of Saul and thus of Israelite kingship in general, and the promise of Nathan in 2 S. 7 depicts the divine legitimation of the dynastic principle in connection with David’s succession to the throne. It is evident from this that Yahweh’s activity of glh ʾozen, “opening the ear,” indicates a functional relationship, “which is irreversible and has far-reaching consequences.”32
If we review what we have learned thus far, it can rightly be stated that the expression, “Yahweh opened someone’s ear,” can be regarded as a technical term for revelation, because it has a breadth of meaning. It is characterized as a comprehensive event, which is initiated by Yahweh when he opens a man’s ear and imparts a word to him, and is actualized by obedient execution on the part of the hearer. Revelation seizes the whole man and is intimately intertwined with history.
However, there is one detail that distinguishes the Samuel passages from each other. In 1 S. 9:15 Yahweh speaks directly to Samuel, but in 2 S. 7:27 Nathan mediates the word of Yahweh to David. David’s statement that God had revealed to him, “I will build you a house” (2 S. 7:27), refers back to the identical word of Yahweh to Nathan in v. 11. Thus it may be said in general that a man who has been called can impart revelation to one of his fellows, and that the latter can regard this as a word spoken to him by Yahweh directly.

c. A Secret. Another expression already known to us from the secular or, more precisely, the Wisdom linguistic usage, glh sodh, “to reveal a secret,” occurs in Am. 3:7. As a wisdom saying, this meant, “to divulge a secret wantonly.” This does not fit the Amos passage. It says that Yahweh does nothing without instructing the prophets. He reveals his plan to them beforehand. Thus this word probably does not come from Amos, but is close to the Deuteronomistic theology,33 and thus is valuable for the relationship it indicates between the word of Yahweh and the deed of Yahweh, and for the significance this has for understanding the work of the prophets. Because of the knowledge that has been given to them, they must proclaim the divine deeds (cf. Lam. 2:14). They are the bridge over which Yahweh establishes an intimate relationship with his people.

d. Yahweh Himself. Finally, the niphal of glh, in combination with ʾel, “unto,” le, “to,” be, “in,” or appearing alone, is used as a specific technical term for revelation. Here once again, we are dealing with expressions that come from the secular realm, which mean “to show oneself to someone,” “to uncover oneself before someone,” etc.34 The idea of “showing oneself” may be intended in Gen. 35:7 (E; note nirʾeh, “appear,” in v. 1), because the reason it gives for calling the place El-bethel, “because there Elohim had revealed himself to him when he fled from his brother,” refers back to Gen. 28:10–22* (E), which speaks of a vision that Jacob saw and of the vow that he carried out in 35:1ff., but not of a word of God which had been given to him. Here glh can mean emphatically that God came forth out of seclusion, that he became visible. But this does not cover everything in the passage. Since God’s turning to Jacob is expressed by answering Jacob’s prayer and being with him wherever he goes (35:3), and leads Jacob and “his household” to serve this new God (35:2, 4), glh here means more than an apparent manifestation of God. This revelation is articulated in the promise to Jacob, which makes possible and determines the continuation of the history of God with Israel.35
glh in the niphal also has this comprehensive meaning in 1 S. 2:27; 3:7, 21; 1 S. 2:27 is the beginning of a message of a man of God to Eli introduced by koh ʾamar yhvh, “Thus Yahweh has said” (vv. 27–36): “I revealed myself to the house of your father when they were in Egypt.… And I chose (→ בחר bāchar) him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest.” This section has traces of a Deuteronomistic revision,36 as indicated by the style, which follows the model of the prophetic speech forms, and the threat against the house of Eli following this introductory statement, whose structure is like that of prophetic oracles. The relationship between the revelation of God and the choice to the priesthood, which has not previously been observed, certainly belongs here, since the Deuteronomist was probably the first to use bachar, “to choose,” as a technical theological term. This passage is important to an understanding of revelation, because it traces the call to priestly office back to revelation.
Prophetic concepts appear in 1 S. 3:7, 21. While Samuel is sleeping in the Shiloh temple, “the word (→ דבר dābhār) of Yahweh is revealed to him.” Its content is a threat against the house of Eli (vv. 11–14), and thus it is a parallel to 2:27–36. According to this, revelation is a gift imparted with the divine word. It qualifies Samuel to be a “prophet of Yahweh” in all Israel (3:20), and causes Shiloh to become the favorite Israelite sanctuary (v. 21). There is an echo of the prophetic style in Dnl. 10:1.
Finally, the use of glh in the niphal by itself as an OT technical term for revelation is verified by the combination of glh in the niphal with a preposition or a particle. This can be seen in Isa. 22:14. The reproach and threat, which certainly comes from Isaiah, “Surely this iniquity will not be forgiven you till you die,” is introduced by the statement, “Yahweh Sebaoth has revealed himself in my ears.” This statement has nothing to do with the expression about “opening the ears,” for, like beshilo, “at Shiloh,” in 1 S. 3:21, beʾoznai, “in my ears,” has in mind the place of Yahweh’s revelation, and not the object. Here, the secular expression with the niphal used by itself, meaning “to uncover oneself,” is carried over into the religious realm. By using the statement, “Yahweh has revealed, uncovered, himself in my ears,” the prophet makes it clear that he understands the following announcement of punishment as something that Yahweh himself decrees. “Here, the word of threat which echoes in the ears of the prophet, intruding upon the event, is depicted as the place of revelation.”37 By the means at his disposal, the prophet must proclaim or announce what Yahweh’s concrete will is.
Additional passages in Deutero- and Trito-Isaiah speak of revelation as a proclamation of Yahweh’s will. Isa. 40:5 contains the concluding statement of the little unit beginning in vv. 3f., which calls upon Israel to prepare a way for Yahweh through the desert “in order that the glory (→ כבוד kābhôdh) of Yahweh may be revealed, and all flesh shall see it.” Thus, the revelation of the glory of Yahweh involves determining the way by which the captives will return home from Babylon, for the call to prepare the way is also an announcement that the exile is at an end. Therefore, just as the way of Yahweh and the road of those returning from exile are the same, so also the return of the exiles and the revelation of the glory of Yahweh are the same. Thus, revelation is a wondrous event initiated by Yahweh, which takes place before all eyes (even those of the heathen), and makes it clear that Yahweh’s majesty triumphs over all seclusion (cf. Isa. 52:10). Isa. 53:1 asks the question, “Who has believed what we have heard? And to whom has the arm of Yahweh been revealed?” Here, the “arm of Yahweh” is used in a figurative sense for the strength or power of God, which is expressed in his saving deeds for Israel. The content of revelation is the disclosure of what Yahweh does for Israel. As Isa. 52:15 pointedly states, this can be “seen” and “perceived,” “announced” and “believed” (→ אמן ʾāman).
Isa. 56:1 also speaks of the imminent revelation of the salvation of Yahweh: “Soon my help (RSV salvation) will come, and my righteousness (RSV deliverance) be revealed.” In contrast to Deutero-Isaiah, this statement is based not on hope, but on the “admonition to ‘do righteousness’ ” in v. 1, which culminates in keeping the sabbath (v. 2).38 Revelation and law are connected with each other even more directly in Dt. 29:28(29), a verse containing a final admonition: “The secret things belong to Yahweh our God; but the things that are revealed belong to us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this Torah (law).”39

  IV. Theological Considerations

1. glh and the Theme, “The Revelation of God in the OT.” Finally, when we attempt to summarize the contribution glh makes to the theme of “the revelation of God in the OT,” it is helpful to present a brief survey of the distribution of this term in the OT in the religious sense.

a. Distribution of the Term. glh appears five times in the Hexateuch in the religious sense: three times in J (only in the Balaam narrative!), and once each in E and Deuteronomy. In the historical books, there are four occurrences in 1 Samuel, one indicating Deuteronomistic influence and two prophetic. The only passage in 2 Samuel is also closely related to prophetic ideas. In the prophetic books, glh is used once in Isaiah. The only passage in Amos indicates Deuteronomistic influence. Along with two examples in Deutero-Isaiah and one in Trito-Isaiah, glh occurs twice in the postexilic psalms, three times in Job, and eight in Daniel. Thus, of these 28 occurrences, 10 are preexilic, 16 postexilic, and 2 Deuteronomistic. The results of this statistical analysis are obvious. glh is not a term characteristic of a particular author or a particular time. If anything, glh in the religious sense exhibits a certain nearness to preexilic prophetism, which could explain its use in E, the books of Samuel, and the Deuteronomic-Deuteronomistic literature, as well as the easily established increase of occurrences in the exilic and postexilic periods. Further, when we consider that the book of Daniel belongs to Apocalyptic Literature, and that approximately 50 percent of the examples of glh in the Qumran literature belong to the religious realm, this may corroborate our conjecture that glh attained greater significance as a technical term for revelation only in the later course of Israelite-Judean history.

b. Its Contribution to This Theme. With regard to the contribution of glh to the theme of “revelation in the OT,” the oft-repeated statement that the religious use of glh has been taken over from the secular is important because, according to the view of the OT, the revelation of God can be described only “in ‘profane, secular language’.” This is fundamental to a correct understanding of biblical revelation.40
In light of this, it is significant that the oldest occurrence of glh, from the viewpoint of content and literary style, appears in the description of Balaam’s reception of a vision. Since Balaam is a foreigner, and (judging from the names El, Elyon, and Shaddai) his God originally belonged to the Canaanite pantheon, the idea of divine revelation in a vision could be non-Israelite in origin. Of course, nothing can be proved from a single passage. However, the fact that the J narrative suppresses the visionary element in favor of the auditory41 points in this direction. Thus, Yahweh shows himself, appears, in order to say something. In Israelite thought, the entire emphasis is placed on the word of God.
1 S. 9:15 may emphasize this further. Wagner is certainly correct in saying that this passage contains one of the oldest examples in which glh describes a revelatory act of Yahweh.42 This confirms with regard to content the conclusion Eissfeldt reached on the basis of literary criticism, that the narrative in 1 S. 9:1–10:16 is intimately related to J in the Hexateuch.43 The word that Yahweh causes Samuel to hear is all important, and it authorizes him to anoint Saul naghidh, “prince,” over the people of God, in order that he might save them from the Philistines. Thus, on the one hand revelation involves the speaking of Yahweh and the hearing of Samuel, but also, on the other hand, the execution of Yahweh’s commission to Samuel, in which is manifested God’s saving will for Israel. Accordingly, revelation is defined not as a mere appearance, as God becoming visible, but as a manifestation of God intruding upon an event, as a word of God that shapes history, makes known the course of history, and takes place in the course of this history.44
Thus, glh became a theologically filled concept, which is able to express the main features of the Israelite understanding of revelation. And also at a later time this verbal root came to be used as a technical term for revelation in the prophetic literature and in the literature intimately related to it. Furthermore, the word intruding into history, now as a word of threat, is the place where the revelation of God occurs. However, in contrast to the Samuel passage, the word of God is no longer merely a direct introduction to the act of the person empowered thereby, but much more the announcement of the divine act itself, a proclamation of the will of God mediated by the prophet, the purpose of which is to make Israel see the consequences of her deeds, and, if possible, to bring her back to the way of obedience.
In light of this, it is possible on the one hand to define the course of history itself explicitly as the revelation of Yahweh, and from this to get an understanding of the majesty of God, but now also applying to non-Israelites, and on the other hand to attain an understanding of the law which finds in the written Torah the revealed will of God, binding for all time. Both ways are attested in the exilic and postexilic periods, and thus characterize the understanding of revelation belonging to this era.
A final alteration takes place in the apocalyptic literature. Probably in a looser, and yet still purely formal, relationship to the oldest prophetic concepts, it understands revelation to mean the disclosure of particular secrets mediated to the apocalypticist in nocturnal visions (the passages in Dnl. and the Qumran literature, as 1QH 1:21; etc.). In the Qumran community, a principal element of these revealed secrets is the interpretation of the OT disclosing the events to take place in the End Time. In this connection, the Qumran sect regards as revelation not the Torah or the other parts of the OT, but only their own understanding.45

2. golah As a Designation for the Postexilic Cult Community. A brief word must also be said concerning the theological evaluation of the term golah in the Chronicler’s work.46 The Chronicler also knows and uses the meaning “exile,” “exiles,” which was suggested above.47 But in Ezr. 9–10, he also connects golah with “remnant,” and extends it to include the whole Jerusalem cult community in order to contrast it with the Samaritans. “Those who belong to this cult community, repeatedly pardoned by God and established by God, are a part of ‘those who returned home’ and of ‘the remnant’.”48


ZOBEL, H.-J., “גָּלָה”, Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament 2, 476-488.

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Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:15 AM

Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon

גָּלָה S1540 TWOT350 GK1655189
      vb. uncover, remove (NH id., cf. Arabic جَلَا (jalā) be or become clear, uncovered; display, reveal, declare; go forth, emigrate; cf. Ethiopic ገለወ (galawa) obducere, velare, & 11: ገለየ (galaya) in deriv. (rare) Di1141; Aramaic גְּלָא, ܓܠܴܐ (glo) reveal)—
      Qal51 Pf. ג׳ etc.
       •      1 S 4:21 + (18 t.times in all);
       •      Impf. יִגְלֶה 1 S 20:2 + 5 times וַיִּ֫גֶֽל 2 K 17:23 + 3 times, also juss. יִ֫גֶל Jb 20:28; 36:15;
       •      3 mpl. יִגְלוּ Am 6:7;
       •      Imv. ms. גְּלֵה Ez 12:3;
       •      Inf. abs. גָּלֹה Am 5:5 + 2 times, cstr. גְּלוֹת Ju 18:30 Je 1:3;
       •      Pt. גּוֹלֶה 2 K 24:14, גֹּלֶה 1 S 22:8 + 3 times, f. גּוֹלָה Is 49:21;
       •      pass. גָּלוּי Est 3:14 + 2 times, cstr. גְּלוּי Nu 24:4, 16;—
       1.       גָּלָה אֹזֶן uncover the ear of one, i.e. reveal to him 1 S 9:15; 20:2, 12, 13; 22:8(×2), 17 2 S 7:27 1 Ch 17:25 Ru 4:4 Jb 33:16; 36:10, 15;
         •      גְּלוּי עינים uncovered of eyes, having the eyes open Nu 24:4, 16;
         •      גָּלָה סוֹד reveal a secret Am 3:7 Pr 20:19;
         •      הגלוי the revealed opp. הֶחָתוּם Je 32:11;
         •      גָּלוּי לְ disclosed, published Est 3:14; 8:13.
       2.       intr. remove, depart, גלה משׂושׂ הארץ the mirth of the land is departed Is 24:11;
         •      יגל יבול ביתו the increase of his house shall depart Jb 20:28;
         •      גלה חציר Pr 27:25.
       3.       go into exile Ju 18:30 2 K 17:23; 25:21 Is 5:13 Je 1:3; 52:27 Ez 12:3; 39:23 Am 1:5; 5:5; 6:7; 7:11, 17 Mi 1:16 La 1:3;
         •      גלה כבוד 1 S 4:21, 22 Ho 10:5;
         •      pt. גֹּלֶה an exile 2 S 15:19 2 K 24:14 Is 49:21 Am 6:7.
      Niph. Pf. נִגְלָה 1 S 3:1 + 9 times, נִגְלָתָה Is 53:1, נִגְלֵתִי 1 S 2:27, נִגְלוּ Gn 35:7 + 2 times, נִגְלִינוּ 1 S 14:8;
       •      Impf. יִגָּלֶה, תִּגָּלֶה 1 S 3:7 + 4 times תִּגָּל Is 47:3, יִגָּלוּ 2 S 22:16 + 2 times;
       •      Imv. הִגָּלוּ Is 49:9;
       •      Inf. abs. נִגְלֹה 1 S 2:27;
       •      cstr. נִגְלוֹת 2 S 6:20, הִגָּלוֹת 2 S 6:20 + 2 times;
       •      Pt. pl. נִגְלֹת Dt 29:28;—
       1.       refl.
         a.       uncover oneself (one’s nakedness) 2 S 6:20.
         b.       discover or shew oneself Is 49:9, אֶל 1 S 14:8, 11.
         c.       reveal himself (of God), אֶל Gn 35:7 (E) 1 S 2:27; 3:21, באזני Is 22:14.
       2.       pass.
         a.       be uncovered (one’s nakedness), ערוה Ex 20:26 (E) Is 47:3 Ez 16:36; 23:29, שׁולים Je 13:22.
         b.       be disclosed, discovered, foundations 2 S 22:16 ( = ψ 18:16) Ez 13:14;
           •      gates of death Jb 38:17, עון Ho 7:1, פשׁע Ez 21:29, רעה Pr 26:26 Ez 16:57.
         c.       be revealed כבוד י׳ Is 40:5, זרוע י׳ Is 53:1, דבר י׳ 1 S 3:7, צדקה Is 56:1;
           •      with לְ Is 23:1 Dn 10:1, הַנִּגְלֹת the things revealed Dt 29:28.
       3.       be removed, דּוֹרִי נִסַּע וְנִגְלָה מִנִּי my habitation is plucked up and removed from me Is 38:12.
      Pi.56 Pf. גִּלָּה Lv 20:11, גִּלִּית Is 57:8, גִּלֵּיתִי Je 33:6;
       •      Impf. יְגַלֶּה Dt 23:1, תְּגַל Pr 25:9;
       •      Imv. גַּל ψ 119:18, גַּלִּי Is 47:2;
       •      Inf. גַּלּוֹת Lv 18:6;
       •      Pt. מְגַלֶּה Jb 12:22;—
       1.       uncover,
         a.       nakedness (often = contract marriage, RSLagGN 1882, 408; JPh. ix. 94) Lv 18:6–19; 20:11–21 (H 23 times) Ez 22:10;
           •      cf. כנף אביו Dt 23:1; 27:20;
           •      of exposure, as a reproach, Ez 16:37; 23:10, cf. נבלת Ho 2:12, שׁולים Na 3:5;
           •      immodesty Ez 23:18, מקור דמיה Lv 20:18 (H), תזנותיה Ez 23:18;
           •      ג׳ alone Is 57:8 (all subj. fem.)
         b.       in gen.;
           •      feet Ru 3:4, 7, leg Is 47:2, veil v 2 (i.e. remove it) cf. 22:8, פני לבושׁו Jb 41:5, eyes Nu 22:31 (E) ψ 119:18 (open them so as to see).
       2.       disclose, discover, lay bare, secret places Je 49:10, deep places Jb 12:22, foundations Mi 1:6, blood Is 26:21, iniquity Jb 20:27, secret Pr 11:13; 25:9, a wanderer (betray) Is 16:3.
       3.       make known, shew, reveal, רִיב אֶל make known a cause unto Je 11:20; 20:12;
         •      with לְ Je 33:6;
         •      גִּלָּה צִדְקָתוֹ לעיני shew his righteousness in the eyes of ψ 98:2;
         •      with עַל:
         •      על עון, על חטאת make known concerning, iniquity, sin La 2:14; 4:22.
      Pu. Pf. גֻּלְּתָה be uncovered Na 2:8;
       •      Pt. תּוֹכַחַת מְגֻלָּה open rebuke Pr 27:5.
      Hiph.39 Pf. הֶגְלָה 2 K 17:11 +, הִגְלָה 2 K 24:14, הֶגְלָם 1 Ch 8:7, הִגְלָם Je 20:4;
       •      Impf. וַיֶּגֶל 2 K 17:6 + 3 times;
       •      sf. וַיַּגְלֶהָ 2 K 16:9, וַיַּגְלֵם 2 K 15:29, 1 Ch 5:26, יַגְלוּם 1 Ch 8:6:
       •      Inf. הַגְלוֹת 1 Ch 5:41 + 5 times, בַּגְלוֹתוֹ Je 27:20;—
       •      carry away into exile, take into exile 2 K 15:29; 16:9; 17:6, 11, 26, 27, 28, 33; 18:11; 24:14, 15; 25:11 1 Ch 5:6, 26, 41; 8:6, 7 2 Ch 36:20 Ezr 2:1 Ne 7:6 Est 2:6 Je 20:4; 22:12; 24:1; 27:20; 20:1, 4, 7, 14; 39:9; 43:3; 52:15, 28, 29, 30 La 4:22 Ez 39:28 Am 1:6; 5:27.
      Hoph. Pf. הָגְלָה Est 2:6;
       •      f. הָגְלְתָה Est 2:6, הָגְלוּ 1 Ch 9:1 Je 40:7, הָגְלָת Je 13:19(×2) (Ges§ 75 m);
       •      Pt. pass. מֻגְלִים Je 40:1 carried into exile.
       1.       Impf. וַיִּתְגַּל was uncovered (naked) Gn 9:21.
       2.       Inf. בְּהִתְגַּלּוֹת לִבּוֹ that his heart may reveal itself Pr 18:2.

  †גּוֹלָה S1473 TWOT350a GK158342
        n.f. exiles, exile—(cf. Arabic جَالٍ (jālin) one emigrating, جَالِيَةٌ (jāliyatun) a company of exiles)—Je 28:6 + 38 times, גֹּלָה Is 49:21 1 Ch 5:22 Est 2:6 Na 3:10;—
          1.       coll. exiles, Est 2:6 Je 29:1 Ez 1:1; 3:11, 15; 11:24, 25 Na 3:10;
            •      כל־הגולה Je 28:6; 29:4, 20, 31, קהל הגולה Ezr 10:8.
          2.       abstract, exile, Ezr 6:21; 9:4; 10:6 Zc 6:10;
            •      הלך בגולה go into exile Je 48:11; 49:3; Ez 12:11; 25:3 Am 1:15;
            •      יצא בג׳ Je 29:16; 48:7 Zc 14:2;
            •      הוליך גולה carry into exile 2 K 24:15, הביא ג׳ 2 K 24:16, הוציא ג׳ Ez 12:4, העלה ג׳ Ezr 1:11;
            •      כלי גולה equipment for exile Je 46:19 Ez 12:3, 4, 7;
            •      עד הגלה until the exile 1 Ch 5:22;
            •      בני הגולה exiles Ezr 4:1; 6:19, 20; 8:35; 10:7, 16;
            •      שׁבי הגולה captivity of the exile Ezr 2:1 Ne 7:6.

  †גָּלוּת S1546 TWOT350b GK1661
        n.f. exile—Is 20:4 + 9 times;
          •      גָּלֻת Ob 20:20;
          •      sf. גָּלוּתִי Is 45:13, גָּלוּתֵינוּ Ez 33:21; 40:1 (Qameṣ unchangeable);—
          1.       abs. exile, 2 K 25:27 Je 52:31 Ez 1:2; 33:21; 40:1.
          2.       coll. exiles Am 1:6, 9 Ob 20, גלות כושׁ Is 20:4, גלות יהודה Je 24:5; 28:4; 29:22; 40:1, גלותי ישׁלח he shall let my exiles (Yahweh’s) go free Is 45:13;
            •      vid. LagArm. Stud. § 445.

  †גִּלָּיוֹן S1549 TWOT350c GK1663
        n.m. table, tablet (Talm גִּלְיוֹן, the empty margin of page or roll, vid. LagGN 1881, 403, cf. BN 199)—קַח־לְךָ גִּלָּיוֹן גָּדוֹל וּכְתֹב עָלָיו take thee a great tablet and write upon it Is 8:1;
          •      pl. הַגִּלְיֹנִים tablets of polished metal, mirrors Is 3:23 𝔗 𝔙 Ges Che Di De;
          •      but transparent garments, gauzes, 𝔊 Ew (cf. Arabic جَلْوَةٌ (jalwatun) fine garment).

        n.pr.m. (conspicuous? On ending ת cf. Dr 1 S 17:4 & Nö in EutNab 73) (גָּלְיָת 1 Ch 20:5) Philistine giant slain by David 1 S 17:4, 23; 21:10; 22:10, but according to 2 S 21:19 slain by Elhanan of Bethlehem (בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי; according to 1 Ch 20:5 Elhanan slew לַחְמִי brother of Goliath).

  †יָגְלִי S3020 GK3332
        n.pr.m. (led into exile?) chief of tribe of Dan Nu 34:22.

  גִּלֹה S1542 GK1656
        n.pr.loc. v. sub גיל.

  גֻּלָּה S1543 TWOT353c GK1657 v sub גלל.

BROWN, F. – DRIVER, S. R. – BRIGGS, C. A., Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, 162-163.

Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:16 AM

Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures

גָּלָה fut. יִגְלֶה with Vav convers. וַיִּגֶל prop. TO BE NAKED, and trans. TO MAKE NAKED (kindred to the root גָּלַח to be naked; hence, to be bald, whence, by a softer pronunciation, גָּלַהּ, גָּלָה); especially used of the ear by taking away the hair, of the face by taking away a veil (Arab. جل ا to cast away a garment, to cast away a vail and make bare a woman’s face; metaph. to uncover anything). In the usage of the Hebrew language—
(1) to make naked; hence, to disclose, reveal, to uncover; especially in the phrase גָּלָה אֹזֶן פ׳ to make bare, to uncover any one’s ear by taking away the hair, as done by those who are about to disclose some secret thing; hence to certify of anything, to disclose a matter; 1 Sa. 20:2, “my father will not do anything וְלֹא יִגְלֶה … אֶת־אָזְנִי but he will disclose it to me,” verses 12, 13; 9:15; 22:8, 17. Elsewhere used, in a sense a little different, of God, Job 36:10, “he opens their ears to instruction;” verse 15; 33:16. Hence it is applied גָּלָה סוֹד to reveal a secret, Amos 3:7; Pro. 20:19. It is also said, גָּלָה סֵפֶר to disclose, to unfold a book, ein Buch auffchlagen, Jer. 32:11, 14.
(2) to make a land naked of inhabitants, i.e. to emigrate (Arabic جل ا and جلى id.), and that whether willingly, 2 Sa. 15:19; or unwillingly, i.e. to be led into exile, 2 Ki. 17:23; 24:14; 25:21; Am. 1:5; 6:7, etc; used of inanimate things, Isa. 24:11, “the joy of the land is gone away,” is exiled; Job 20:28; Pro. 27:25.
NIPHAL.—(1) to be uncovered, to be made naked; Isa. 47:3, “thy nakedness shall be uncovered;” Eze. 13:14; 16:36; 23:29. Also used of a vail taken away, Jer. 13:22.
(2) to be revealed.—(a) used of men and of God; to appear, as if by the removal of a vail, i.q. נִרְאָה; followed by אֶל Gen. 35:7; 1 Sa. 14:8, 11; compare Isa. 53:1, where there follows עַל.—(b) to be manifested, manifest, used of things which were before concealed, Isa. 49:9; Hos. 7:1.—(c) to be declared, followed by לְ and אֶל Isa. 23:1; 1 Sa. 3:7.
(3) to be carried away; pass. of Hiph. Isa. 38:12.
PIEL i.q. Kal, but so however, that the proper signification is the prevalent one.
(1) to make naked, to uncover, as the feet, Ruth 3:4, 7; the foundations of a building, Micah 1:6. It is also followed by an acc. of the removed covering, Isa. 22:8; 47:2; Nah. 3:5; Job 41:5. Specially—(a) גִּלָּה עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה “to uncover the nakedness of a woman;” i.e. to have intercourse with her, Lev. 18:8, seq.; 20:17, seq. From the words of Lev. 18:8, it is understood why to uncover the nakedness of a man, is used for, to have unlawful intercourse with his wife, 20:11, 20, 21; in which sense there is also said, to uncover his skirt or coverlet; Deu. 23:1; 27:20.—(b) to uncover any one’s eyes (said of God), i.e. to open them, to shew to him things hidden from mortals; Nu. 22:31; Ps. 119:18, גְּלוּי עֵינַיִם (a man) “with open eyes;” said of a prophet, Nu. 24:4, 16. [Part. Paül.]
(2) metaph. to reveal some hidden thing, Job 20:27; a secret, Pro. 11:13; to deliver up a fugitive, Isa. 16:3; to make known his power and glory, as God, Ps. 98:2; Jer. 33:6. גִּלָּח עַל ד׳ is i.q. גִּלָּה אֶת־אֲשֶׁר עַל ד׳ to uncover a vail, which vailed over any thing, Lam. 2:14; 4:22 (where nothing needs alteration).
PUAL, to be uncovered; Nah. 2:8, of Nineveh, גֻּלְּתָה “she is uncovered,” i.e. ignominiously.
HITHPAEL, הִגְלָה and הֶגְלָה fut. apoc. וַיֶּנֶל to carry away, to lead into exile; 2 Ki. 15:29; 17:6, 11; 18:11, etc.
HOPHAL pass. Esth. 2:6, etc.
HITHPAEL—(1) to uncover oneself, Gen. 9:21.—(2) to reveal itself, said of any one’s heart.
Derivatives, גּוֹלָה, גּוֹלָז, גָּלוּת, גִּלָּיוֹז, and the pr.n. גָּלְיַת, יָנְלִי.

גְּלָה, גְּלָא Ch. to reveal; Dan. 2:22, 28, 29.
APHEL (in the Hebrew manner) הַגְלִי, i.q. Heb. Hiph. to lead into exile, Ezr. 4:10; 5:12.

גֹּלָה i.q. גּוֹלָה emigration, exile.

גִּלֹה (of the form קִיטוֹר, שִׁילֹה, exile, from גָּלָה) Giloh, pr.n. of a city in the mountains of Judah, Josh. 15:51; 2 Sa. 15:12. Gent. n. is 2 Sa. loc. cit. from the form גִּילוֹן, like שִׁילֹנִי from שִׁילֹה.

גֻּלָּה f. (from the root גָּלַל see the etym. note.)—(1) fountain, spring, i.q. גַּל No. 2. Plur. Josh. 15:19; Jud. 1:15.
(2) a bowl, reservoir, so called from its roundness; used of the bowl or oil-vessel of the holy candlestick, Zec. 4:3; comp. 2, where there is in masc. גֹּל. Ecc. 12:6, in describing old age and death, עַד־אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵרָתֵק חֶבֶל הַכֶּםֶף וְתָרֻץ גֻּלַּת הַזָּהָב “before the silver cord be severed, and the golden lamp be broken.”
(3) a ball, a small globe, on the capital of columns, 1 Ki. 7:41; 2 Ch. 4:12, 13.

גִּלּוּלִים m. plur. pr. trunks, logs, blocks, such as are rolled, whence the name (see גָּלַל), hence in derision idols, Levit. 26:30; Deut. 29:16, etc; in various phrases; הָלַךְ אַחֲרֵי הַגִּלּוּלִים to follow idols, 1 Ki. 21:26, עָבַד הַגִּלּוּלִים to serve idols, 2 Ki. 17:12; 21:21; נָשָׂא עֵינַיִם אֶל־הג׳ to lift up the eyes to idols, Eze. 18:12. It is often joined to other nouns expressing contempt of idols, as שִׁקּוּצִים Deu. 29:17; תּוֹעֵבוֹת Eze. 16:36; אֱלִילִים 30:13, and is mostly used in speeches in which worshippers of idols are rebuked, as נִטְמָא בְגִלּוּלִים to pollute oneself with idols, Eze. 20:7, זָנָה אַחֲרֵי גּלּוּלִים 6:9; נִאֵף אֶת־הגִלּוּלִים 23:37, etc.

גְּלוֹם m. (from the root גָּלַם) a mantle, cloak, with which any one is wrapped up, Eze. 27:24. (Ch. גְּלַם, גְּלִימָא id. Hence Gr. χλαμύς, χλανίς, χλαῖνα.)

גָּלוֹן Josh. 21:27, קרי i.q. גּוֹלָן which see.

גָּלוּת once גָּלֻת Obad. 20 (with Kametz impure), f. [root גָּלָה.]
(1) a carrying away, exile, 2 Ki. 25:27; Jer. 52:31; Eze. 1:2; 33:21.
(2) collect. those who are carried away, exiles. גָּלוּת יְהוּדָה “the exiles of Judah,” Jer. 24:5; 28:4; 29:22; 40:1; גָּלוּת יְהֹוָה used of Israel living in exile, Isa. 45:13.

גָּלוּת emph. גָּלוּתָא f., Ch. exile, בְּנֵי גָלוּתָא exiles; Dan. 2:25; 5:13; Ezr. 6:16. Syr. ܓܳܠܘܽܬܐܳ.

GESENIUS, W. – TREGELLES, S. P., Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, 170-171.

Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:17 AM

Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament)

1655 גָּלָה (gā·lā(h)): v.; ≡ Str 1540; TWOT 350
         1.       LN 28.28–28.56
             (qal)       reveal, i.e., have information be made known (1Sa 9:15);
                (qal pass.)       be made known (Est 3:14; 8:13+);
            (nif)       revealed, exposed, be known, reveal oneself (Ge 35:7);
             (piel)       reveal (Job 12:22);
             (pual)       open, known, revealed (Pr 27:5);
             (hitp)       airing, have oneself reveal information or opinion (Pr 18:2);
         2.       LN 79.114–79.117
            (nif)       uncover, exposed, i.e., pertaining to an object having no cover and so bare and exposed (Ex 20:26), note: often this “uncovering” has a focus of sexual relations;
             (piel)       lay bare, expose, strip off (Lev 20:18);
             (hitp)       uncover oneself (Ge 9:21);
         3.       LN 85.67–85.85
             (qal)       be captive, formally, uncovered, i.e., the state or condition of being taken prisoner and deported to another country (Jdg 18:30);
             (pual)       exiled, deported (Na 2:8[EB 7]+);
            (hif)       deport, exile, carry away, i.e., cause a population to dwell in another place (2Ki 15:29);
             (hof)       exiled, deported, captive (1Ch 9:1; Est 2:6, 6; Jer 13:19, 19; 40:1, 7+);
         4.       LN 13.1–13.47
             (qal)       depart, remove, formally, uncover, i.e., cause a state or condition to no longer exist possibly as a figurative extension of the laying bare or razing of a building to destruction;
             (piel)       take away (Ps 119:22);
         5.       LN 24.1–24.51
            (nif)       let see, i.e., make possible for one to see an object using sight as a perception (1Sa 14:8);
         6.       LN 37.127–37.138
            (nif)       free, formally, uncovered, i.e., pertaining to being in a state or condition of not being a captive and so free to move about (Isa 49:9);
         7.       LN 20.31–20.60
             (piel)       destroy, formally, lay bare, uncover, i.e., raze a building or other object and so destroy (Mic 1:6);
         8.       LN 15.187–15.211
             (qal)       remove, carry away, bear, i.e., lift and carry an object away from an area or space (Pr 27:25);
         9.       LN 15.1–15.17
             (qal)       go, set out, i.e., make a linear motion in any direction or aspect of movement (Eze 12:2, 3);
          10.       (qal pass.) unsealed, i.e., pertaining to that which does not have a seal on a written document as an extension of an uncovered or revealed object (Jer 32:11, 14+);
          11.       LN 28.28–28.56 unit: (qal pass.) גָּלָה עַיִן (gā·lā(h) ʿǎ·yin)1 receive revelation, be formally, eyes be opened, i.e., have information be fully known; as a figurative extension of the opening of the eyes to gain sight as a physical perception (Nu 24:4,16+); cf. also piel Nu 22:31; Ps 119:18;
          12.       LN 23.61–23.65 unit: גָּלָה עֶרְוָה (gā·lā(h) ʿěr·wā(h)) have sexual relations, formally, reveal the nakedness, i.e., have physical relations (Lev 18:6), note: in improper social contexts this refers to a dishonorable thing;
          13.       LN 33.404–33.405 unit: גָּלָה סּוֹד (gā·lā(h) sôḏ)
             (piel)       gossip, formally, uncover a confidence, i.e., give information which is confidential (Pr 11:13; Pr 25:9); cf. also qal Pr 20:19;
          14.       LN 33.69–33.108 unit: גָּלָה (gā·lā(h)) … אֹזֶן (ʾō·zěn)
             (qal)       tell, speak, make known, formally, reveal [to the] ears, i.e., talk and give verbal information (Ru 4:4)

SWANSON, J., Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament),.

Posts 199
Manuel Maria | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 3:19 AM

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament

      350      גָּלָה (gālâ) uncover, remove.


           350a      גּוֹלָה (gôlâ) captivity.
           350b      גָּלוּת (gālût) captivity.
           350c      גִּלָּיוֹן (gillāyôn) table, tablet.

Hebrew gālâ in its transitive meaning “to uncover” has its closest connections with Northwest Semitic (cf. Phoenician in the Ahiram Inscription, “ … and uncovered this sarcophagus,” and Imperial Aramaic in the Word of Ahiqar, “Do not reveal your secrets to your friends”) and with Arabic galā “to make/become clear.”
In its intransitive meaning “to remove, go into exile” it is remotely related to the Ugaritic verb of motion gly “to leave” (Gordon) or “to arrive at” (Aistleitner), as well as to the Arabic galā “to emigrate.” It occurs as a loan word with this meaning in late Aramaic and Akkadian.
The meaning “to uncover” occurs in the Qal, Niphal, Piel, Pual and Hithpael stems, and the meaning “to depart, to go into exile” occurs in the Qal, Hiphil and Hophal stems.
In the light of this evidence it must remain at this point an open question whether we are dealing with one or two roots. In any case, we will discuss the verb under these two main meanings: “to uncover,” and “to depart, to go into exile.”
“To uncover.” In the Qal the verb is used frequently with the organs of sense as the object: the ear (I Sam 9:15, passim) and the eye (Num 24:4).
The idiom “to uncover the ear” means simply “to show, to reveal” and occurs with either man or God as its subject. With man as its subject it occurs in connection with Saul to Jonathan (I Sam 20:2), of Jonathan to David (I Sam 20:12–13), of aides to Saul (I Sam 22:8), of priests to Saul (I Sam 22:17); of Boaz to the nearer kinsman (Ruth 4:4). With God as its subject: to Samuel (I Sam 9:15); to David (II Sam 7:27 = I Chr 17:25) to ordinary humans (in the Elihu speech—Job 33:16; 36:10). Since it is used of men as well as of God, it must not be thought of as a technical term for God’s revelation. To Samuel he reveals himself directly (cf. Isa 22:14) and to David he sometimes mediated his revelation through the prophet Nathan. To ordinary folk he reveals himself in dreams or visions (Job 33:16) and in trying experiences (Job 36:10).
Amos used gālâ with sōd “secret” as its object in this classic statement about God’s revelation to his prophets: “Surely the lord God will do nothing but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets” (Amos 3:7). (The verb also has sōd as its object in Prov 20:19.)
When God revealed himself to Balaam it is said that Balaam’s eyes were “uncovered,” “opened” (Num 24:4,6). It appears that in this manner Balaam saw something which he otherwise could not see.
In addition to these private disclosures, the Qal of gālâ is used for widespread communication. During the intrigue and contest between Haman and Mordecai the letters of the king were published to all the people of the provinces proclaiming what both Haman (Est 3:14) and Mordecai (8:13) had written. The Qal passive participle is used in Jer 32:11. 14, to denote an “open” document in contrast to a sealed one.
In the Niphal the action happens to the subject itself in either a passive or reflexive way. Thus in a passive sense it means “to be uncovered”: of nakedness (Ex 20:26; Isa 47:3), of skirts (Jer 13:22), and of foundations (II Sam 22:16 = Ps 18:16) where it is parallel to the Niphal of rāʾâ “to be visible.” Thus it also means “to be known” (Isa 23:1) and “to be revealed”—of a word from God to Daniel (Dan 10:1).
In the reflexive sense it means “to expose oneself” (three times of David in II Sam 6:20) or “to show/reveal oneself,” of Jonathan to the Philis-tines (I Sam 14:8), of the gates to death to Job (Job 38:17) and of God. With God it is used to designate his theophany to Jacob (Gen 35:7; cf. Gen 28). The word is also used of God’s revelation three times in the stories of Samuel’s childhood: of his revelation to Eli’s fathers (I Sam 2:27), to Samuel (I Sam 3:21; cf. I Sam 3;7). Here, as in the idiom “to uncover the ear” and in Amos’ classic statement it denotes the revelation of God to a prophet.
The Niphal participle with a passive notion is used in Deut 29:28 to denote God’s open threats and promises revealed to Israel in that book. According to Isa 40:5 the glory of the lord—his triumphant victory on earth through his rule in Israel—will be revealed to all flesh. It has the same meaning in Isa 56: l. It is used in Isa 53:1 for the revelation to mankind of God’s work through the Suffering Servant.
Thus, though not a technical term for divine revelation, the verb gālâ frequently conveys this meaning.
Likewise in the Piel it always denotes “to uncover” something which otherwise is normally concealed. Thus it means “to open” the eyes—to see an angel (Num 22:31) or wonderful things in the law (Ps 119:18); “to make known, revealed, manifest”: of Jeremiah in his complaint to the LORD (Jer 11:20; 20:12), of the LORD in his revelation of peace and truth to Israel (Jer 33:6) and his righteousness to them (Ps 98:2); “to betray”: of fugitives (Isa 16:3), of secrets (Prov 11:13; 25:9); “to uncover, expose”: of Esau’s hiding place (Jer 49:10), the mysteries of darkness (Job 12:22), foundations (Mic 1:6), sin (Job 20:27; Lam 2:14; 4:22), and feet (Ruth 3:4,7).
But it is used most frequently in this stem for designating proscribed sexual activity. It occurs twenty-four times in Lev 18 and 20 in the expression “to uncover the shame” which denotes sexual intercourse in proscribed situations, usually incest, also Deut 22:30 [H 23:1]; 27:20. It is also used of uncovering or removing that which covers: the woman’s skirt (Isa 47:3; Nah 3:5), of Judah’s protective covering (Isa 22:8), and Leviathan’s outer armor (Job 41:13 [H 5]). In many passages, then, it has the connotation “to shame.”
Alongside of Lev 18 and 20 it occurs in the prophetic complaint that Israel has “uncovered her nakedness,” a metaphor denoting that she threw off her loyalty to the LORD. Against this, the LORD or her former lovers will “expose the nakedness” = “to shame” of the faithless nation (Hos 2:12; Ezk 16:36); cf. the threat against Nineveh (Nah 3:5) and against Babylon (Isa 47:3).
“To remove, go into exile.” The basic meaning of the intransitive gālâ appears in Ezk 12:3 where the prophet receives the commandment “go forth” and in the lament of Phineas’s travailing wife: “The glory of Israel is departed.” A similar meaning is found in Isaiah’s lament: “The mirth of the land is gone” (Isa 24:11) and in this description by Zophar of the fate of the wicked: “The increase of his house shall depart” (Job 20:28). It also has this simple meaning “to depart” in Prov 27:25 and Hos 10:5.
In the remaining twenty passages in the Qal it has the more precise meaning “to be led into captivity.” In addition it occurs thirty nine times in the Hiphil with the meaning “to carry away into exile” and seven times in the passive Hophal with a similar meaning as in Qal. The verb figures prominently in the announcement of judgment by Amos (1:5; 5:5, 27; 6:7; 7:11, 17) and Jeremiah (13:19; 20:4; 22:12; 27:20; cf. Lam 1:3; see also Isa 5:13).
In several passages the LORD is designated as the subject who leads Israel into captivity (Jer 29:4,7,14; Ezk 39:28; Amos 5:27; Lam 4:22; I Chr 5:41–the only place where the human agent [Nebuchadnezzar] is explicitly mentioned; cf. of other people in II Kgs 17:11). Usually, however, Israel (Judah) or its glory is the subject of the verb.
The LORD’s judgment of leading Israel out of the land into captivity functions as an appropriate contrast to his carrying out his promise to give them the land as a gift at the beginning of their history. Likewise, his repeated promises to the fathers to give them the land stand out sharply against his repeated warnings through the prophets to lead them out of the land. In II Kgs 17:11 Israel’s expulsion from the land is explicitly paralleled with the fate of the Canaanites whom he expelled in favor of Israel when they entered the land.
It is instructive to note that the verb never occurs in Deuteronomy. In this book the threat of eviction from the land is expressed by other expressions such as “to perish quickly (ʾbd) from upon the land” (Deut 4:26; 11;17), and pûṣ (Hiphil) “to scatter.” If the putative Mosaic addresses contained in Deuteronomy are in fact of late origin, as is commonly alleged, it seems strange that gālâ, the common term for eviction from the land in the ninth to seventh century prophets, does not occur.

WALTKE, B. K., “350 גָּלָה”, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, 160-161.

Posts 80
Daniel Bender | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, May 7 2019 8:10 AM


   גלה: MHb.; Ug. to penetrate, to go to (Driver Myths 146b; Aistleitner 652, alt. to leave, UTGl. 579), Ph. to uncover; EgArm. (DISO 50), JArm. Syr. Mnd. (MdD 92b) to open, to make public, to emigrate; Arb. jalā to make clear, become clear, to emigrate, Eth. tagalgala (cf. Leslau 15) and Akk. galū (Arm. lw. AHw. 275) to go into exile.

   qal: pf. גָּלָה, גָּֽלְתָה, גָּלִיתָ(ה), גָּלוּ; impf. יִגְלֶה, יִ֫גֶל, וַיִּ֫גֶל, אֶגְלֶה; impv. גְּלֵה; inf. גְּלוֹת, גָּלֹה; pt. גֹּ(וֹ)לֶה, גֹּלָה, גֹּלִים, גָּלוּי, גְּלוּי: —1. to uncover, to lay bare: secret Am 37, to betray a secret Pr 2019, to issue an edict Est 314 813; סֵפֶר גָּלוּי deed of purchase (:: חָתוּם Jr 3211.14, → Rudolph Jer. 191f; MHb. בַּגָּלוּי public :: בַּסֵּתֶר); גָּלָה אָזְנוֹ (Akk. uznā puttū, Syr. to open eyes, ears) to open someone’s ears = to inform him: sbj. people 1S 202.12f 228.17 Ru 44 (with לֵאמֹר); sbj. God 1S 915 2S 727 Jb 3316 3610.15 1C 1725; גְּלוּי עֵינָיִם with opened eyes Nu 244.16, cj. גָּלוּי instead of וְלִי (Gunkel) Ps 13917; —2. a) to (have to) leave, disappear (DJD 1:5 || תמם); joy Is 2411, grass Pr 2725 (prp. עלה), with מִן 1S 421f Ezk 123 Hos 105 (כָּבוֹד) Mi 116; with מֵעַל 2K 1723 2521 Jr 5227 Am 711.17; abs. Ezk 123, with לְ 2S 1510; b) to go into exile Is 513 Jr 13 Ezk 3923 Am 15 55 67 Lam 13, cj. Nah 28; Is 4921; גְּלוֹת הָאָרֶץ the land Ju 1830, Jerusalem Jr 13; —2K 2414 rd. גּוֹלָה and Jb 2028 rd. יָגֹל יָבָל (גלל). †

  nif: pf. נִגְלָה, נִגְלְתָה, נִגְלֵיתִי, נִגְלִינוּ; impf. יִגָּלֶה, תִּגָּל, יִגָּלוּ; impv. הִגָּלוּ; inf. הִגָּלוֹת, abs. נִגְלֹה and 2S 620 נִגְלוֹת (BL 422); pt. pl. f. נִגְלֹת Dt 2928: —1. to expose oneself (Pax ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΙΑ 1955:100ff.)2S 620; to be uncovered, to be exposed: foundation Ezk 1314; 2S 2216 / Ps 1816; long skirt Jr 1322, intimate parts of the body Ex 2026 Is 473 Ezk 1636.57 2329 (rd. וְנִגְלְתָה), פֶּשַׁע Ezk 2129, עָוֹן Hos 71, רָעָה Pr 2626, שַׁעֲרֵי מָוֶת Jb 3817; —2. to appear, show Is 499 (|| צֵֽאוּ); to let oneself be seen 1S 148.11 (with אֶל), to become visible Sir 4216 (God) to reveal oneself Gn 357 1S 227 321 Is 2214, his כָּבוֹד Is 405; —3. information is announced Is 231, revealed 1S 37 Is 531 561 Da 101; הַנִּגְלֹת what is disclosed :: הַנִּסְתָּרוֹת Dt 2928; —Is 3812 rd. וְנַגַל (: גלל nif.; Begrich Ps. Hisk. 27f). †

   pi: pf. גִּלָּה, גִּלְּתָה, גִּלִּית, גִּלֵּיתִי (4 ×) and גִּלִּיתִי (1 ×), גִּלּוּ; impf. יְגַלֶּה, תְּגַלֵּֽה (8 ×, Arm. BL 422t), וַיְגַל, תְּגַל, תְּגָֽל, תְּגַלִּי; impv. גַּל, גַּלִּי; inf. גַּלּוֹת; pt. מְגַלֶּה: —1. to uncover, disclose: מִסְתָּרָיו Jr 4910, נַבְלֻת Hos 212, יְסֹד Mi 16, שׁוּלִים Nah 35, סוֹד Pr 1113 259, עָוֹן Jb 2027, עֶרְוָה Ezk 1637 2310.18, מָסָךְ Is 228 2621 472 578; → Lv 2018 Ps 982 Jb 1222 415 Ru 34.7; גִּ׳ עֵינֵי opened the eyes Nu 2221 Ps 11918, גִּ׳ אֶת to betray somebody Is 163; וַתְּגַל תַּזְנוּתֶיהָ she openly behaved as a prostitute Ezk 2318; גִּ׳ עַל to expose Lam 214 422; מגלה ראי who cleans the mirror Sir 1211; to reveal (a time of salvation) Jr 336; —2. espec. to sleep with: גִּ׳ עֶרְוַת אָב the wife of one’s father Lv 187 (→ 188 !) Ezk 2210, the wife of one’s father’s brother Lv 2020, the wife of one’s brother 2021; simil. גִּ׳ כְּנַף אָב Dt 231 2720 > to sleep with in general Lv 186-19 2011.17-19 —Jr 1120 2012 rd. גַּלּוֹתִי and Ps 11922 rd. גֹּל (: גלל). †

   pu: pt. f. מְגֻלָּה: undisguised, open (rebuke) Pr 275; מגולי אזן with an open ear 1QM x:11; —Nah 28 rd. וְגָֽלְתָה. †

   hif: pf. הִגְלָה (1 ×) and הֶגְלָה (BL 208o, 10 ×), הִגְלִיתָ, הִגְלֵיתִי, הִגְלוּ, הִגְלִיתֶם, הִגְלָם and הֶגְלָם; impf. וַיֶּגֶל, וַיַּגְלֶהָ, וַיַּגְלוּם; inf. הַגְלוֹת, הַגְלוֹתִי, בַּגְלוֹתוֹ Jr 2720 < בְּהַגְ׳ (BL 228a): to deport 2K 1520 169 176.11.26-28.33 1811 2414f 2511 Jr 204 2212 241 2720 399 433 5215.28.30 Ezk 3928 Am 16 527 Lam 422 Est 26 Ezr 21 Neh 76 1C 56.26.41 86 (→ II מָנָֽ֫חַת) 2C 3620; cf. n.m. הגלניה “Y. carried me into exile” Moscati 65, 43. †

   hof: pf. הָגְלָה, הָגְלָת (Bergsträsser 2:165e, Jr 1319a, in b rd. גָּלֻת), הָגְלוּ; pt. מֻגְלִים: to be deported Jr 401.7 Est 26 1C 91. †

   hitp: impf. וַיִּתְגַּל; inf. הִתְגַּלּוֹת: —1. to expose oneself Gn 921; —2. to become obvious (→ לֵב, sense or mind ?) Pr 182. †

  Der. גּוֹלָה, גָּלוּת, גִּלָּיוֹן; n.m. יָגְלִי (?).

Ludwig Koehler et al., The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994–2000), 191–192.

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