Hebrew word study: Comparing a Hebrew word with other Semitic languages

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Harper, Jacob D. | Forum Activity | Posted: Tue, Jul 28 2020 5:30 PM

Good evening,

I am working on an assignment where I need to compare the spellings and basic meanings of a certain word in Hebrew (נעם) in other Semitic languages. Is this something that can be done in Logos or will I need to look at outside resources?

Thanks in advance,

Jacob

Posts 2776
Beloved Amodeo | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jul 28 2020 6:26 PM

Harper, Jacob D.:

Good evening,

I am working on an assignment where I need to compare the spellings and basic meanings of a certain word in Hebrew (נעם) in other Semitic languages. Is this something that can be done in Logos or will I need to look at outside resources?

Thanks in advance,

Jacob

There are Hebrew scholars that populate these forums. I'm not one of them. But, the resource I would consult in this instance is TDOT.I

leave you with a sample of the quality of the work. I hope some one more qualified chimes in.

I. Etymology. The root, listed as nʿm I in lexicons of Biblical Hebrew (cf. also nʾm and nḫm/nḥm), is also found in Middle Hebrew and other Semitic languages: Arabic (naʿima, “enjoy, rejoice”), Amorite (PN nḫm), Ugaritic (nʿm, “lovely, good,” “attractiveness, something attractive, a lovely place,” “well-being, health”; nʿmt, “loveliness”; nʿmy, “loveliness, delight”; nʿmn, “lovely, good,” also a PN), Phoenician and Punic (nʿm, “good, friendly, lovely,” “joy, goodness”; nʿmt, “good, beneficial,” “goodness,” etc.), Postbiblical Aramaic (e.g., neʿîmtāʾ, “loveliness”; also a PN), and Syriac (neʿîmāʾ, “lovely, beloved”; also a PN).1

This root is distinct from nʿm II, which appears not only in Middle Hebrew (hiphil: “sing, accompany”; neʿîmâ, “song, sound,” etc.), but also, e.g., in Arabic (naǵama, “hum, sing”; naǵma, “sound, melody”), Aramaic (e.g., neʿîmtāʾ, “melody”), and Syriac (e.g., naʿmatānāyāʾ, “pertaining to the modulation of the voice”). In the OT this root is attested only in derivatives (esp. neʿîmâ, “song, music,” Sir. 45:9; the PN naʿa I may mean “[female] singer,” but it may also derive from nʿm I and mean “lovely” or “friendly”; cf. also the roots nʾm and nḫm).

 Kronholm, T. (1998). נָעַם. G. J. Botterweck, H. Ringgren, & H.-J. Fabry (Eds.), D. E. Green (Trans.), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (Revised Edition, Vol. 9, p. 468). Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, U.K.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

MacBook Pro macOS Catalina 10.15.6

Posts 11310
Denise | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Jul 28 2020 7:46 PM

Beloved's TDOT is good; also HALOT.

Not answering this thread but related:

https://www.amazon.com/Comprehensive-Etymological-Dictionary-Language-Readers/dp/965220093X 

Carta, no less! (a 2015 available)

"God will save his fallen angels and their broken wings He'll mend."

Posts 5002
David Paul | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 1:36 AM

Denise:

Beloved's TDOT is good; also HALOT.

Not answering this thread but related:

https://www.amazon.com/Comprehensive-Etymological-Dictionary-Language-Readers/dp/965220093X 

Carta, no less! (a 2015 available)

I have Klein's Dictionary. It is just a dictionary, so it doesn't discuss matters per se. There are two entries (I & II). The meaning of I is "pleasant" with variations of "agreeable", "delightful", and "lovely". There are associations with Aramaic, Ugaritic, Arabic, & Old South Arabic, specifically:

Aram. -- n'`iymaa' [written in pointed H. text; this is my translit]
Ugar. -- n`m
Arab. -- na`ima & 'an`ama
OSArab. -- n`m

The meaning of II is "to sing; to compose or play music". This entry has Syriac associations, specifically:

Syr. -- na`eim (= he sang), ne`emtaa' ( = sound, song, voice) and a reference to the Aram. entry above, that is, to the meaning "pleasant". [Again, these entries are my translits]

Posts 2589
Lee | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 3:23 AM

Whoever gave out this assignment chose a relatively uncontroversial word, so the Logos resources are quite sufficient.

If it were a controversial and/or rare word, you'd have to dig into Syriac, Akkadian, even Egyptian, where authoritative sources are not widely available in software.

Posts 2776
Beloved Amodeo | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 5:50 AM

Harper, Jacob D.:

Is this something that can be done in Logos or will I need to look at outside resources?

Logos is certainly up to the task if you own the requisite resources. You can do a basic search of your Hebrew Lexicons either transliterated or by typing in Hebrew on the word. See my results.

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

MacBook Pro macOS Catalina 10.15.6

Posts 11310
Denise | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 6:07 AM

David Paul:
I have Klein's Dictionary. It is just a dictionary, so it doesn't discuss matters per se.
 

I always wonder why the  OT/hebrew is the also-ran in Logos. Granted the customer base just can't not get excited over a new greek lexicon (except for Lampe, that looks suspiciously Catholic by virtue of 'the Fathers').

I don't bother suggesting or rooting for the OT resources, since it'll be sleepy-time at Ridgmont High.

The Akkadian/Hebrew volume by Tewil remains my absolute favorite.

"God will save his fallen angels and their broken wings He'll mend."

Posts 1513
Ben | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 12:54 PM

+1 for Tawil and more OT/lexicographe resources. https://community.logos.com/forums/t/146684.aspx 

"The whole modern world has divided itself into Conservatives and Progressives. The business of Progressives is to go on making mistakes. The business of Conservatives is to prevent mistakes from being corrected."- G.K. Chesterton

Posts 30129
Forum MVP
MJ. Smith | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Jul 29 2020 2:35 PM

Come on people ... fight for what you need ... then others will discover they needed it and didn't know.

Orthodox Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev: "To be a theologian means to have experience of a personal encounter with God through prayer and worship."

Posts 2
Harper, Jacob D. | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Jul 30 2020 4:20 PM

Thank you so much everyone who responded. That was very helpful feedback. Much appreciated!

Posts 11310
Denise | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Jul 30 2020 5:28 PM

MJ. Smith:

Come on people ... fight for what you need ... then others will discover they needed it and didn't know.

I'd like to agree (indeed, I've recommended the same). But I notice these type of resources (hebrew, technical, etc) 'live' somewhere between 45-50% prepub interest. In theory, the Logos semitic (hebrew, syriac, etc) technical market is half the break-even publish level. No matter people's hopes.

Actually, my sense of humor has surmised that the prepub formula is actually: Cost = 2 X Customers-Interested X Prepub-price. More customers simply mean a higher cost to publish!

The horrific hebrew prepub battlefield (a few greek wounded):

https://www.logos.com/search?limit=60&page=1&ownership=all&filters=status-prepub_Status%2Blanguage-english_Language%2Btopic-languages_Topic%2Bstatus-prepub-gatheringinterest_Pre-Pub&sortBy=PriceHigh&geographicAvailability=all 

The first two (essentially the same resource) actually went into production! Until they realized the customers had doubled, thereby raising the cost. The clear solution was to re-cost the package, forgetting more future customers would simply raise the cost again!

Smiling.

"God will save his fallen angels and their broken wings He'll mend."

Posts 5002
David Paul | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Jul 31 2020 3:22 PM

With the TDOT entry that Beloved posted above, you probably have all you need, but I don't think anyone mentioned TWOT (Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament). It's one of my favorite Logos resources. Not as complete as TDOT, but you get most of what you will want for a much cheaper price...assuming it's still available in Logos. It comes and goes. Grab it if you can.

https://www.logos.com/product/1102/theological-wordbook-of-the-old-testament

Word of caution: although I use this resource constantly, it is unfortunately riddled with typos. I actually went ahead and purchased a hard copy of it (two vols.) just so I could check to see which mistakes are Logos OCR issues (some) and which are baked into the works (most). Moody should be ashamed of letting this thing out into the world in the shape it's in. That said, still highly recommended, particularly if you are just studying from it (as opposed to quoting it in print, a process that will make you sic).

Posts 2776
Beloved Amodeo | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Jul 31 2020 5:38 PM

David Paul:

With the TDOT entry that Beloved posted above, you probably have all you need, but I don't think anyone mentioned TWOT (Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament). It's one of my favorite Logos resources. Not as complete as TDOT, but you get most of what you will want for a much cheaper price...assuming it's still available in Logos. It comes and goes. Grab it if you can.

https://www.logos.com/product/1102/theological-wordbook-of-the-old-testament

Word of caution: although I use this resource constantly, it is unfortunately riddled with typos. I actually went ahead and purchased a hard copy of it (two vols.) just so I could check to see which mistakes are Logos OCR issues (some) and which are baked into the works (most). Moody should be ashamed of letting this thing out into the world in the shape it's in. That said, still highly recommended, particularly if you are just studying from it (as opposed to quoting it in print, a process that will make you sic).

Thanks for the shout out, David.

You are one of our resident Hebrew savants. So, I respect your opinion on this. Before TDOT, I too relied heavily on TWOT, however in this instance there is another resource I would prefer over TWOT and it is down right cheap, Gesenius:

https://www.logos.com/product/2001/gesenius-hebrew-chaldee-lexicon-to-the-old-testament 

What is your opinion of this resource? I'd be interested to know.

Meanwhile, Jesus kept on growing wiser and more mature, and in favor with God and his fellow man.

International Standard Version. (2011). (Lk 2:52). Yorba Linda, CA: ISV Foundation.

MacBook Pro macOS Catalina 10.15.6

Posts 5002
David Paul | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Aug 7 2020 11:08 PM

Beloved Amodeo:

https://www.logos.com/product/2001/gesenius-hebrew-chaldee-lexicon-to-the-old-testament 

What is your opinion of this resource? I'd be interested to know.

I have Gesenius, but I don't turn to it very often. That's not a knock at all. I am a fan of much 19th century scholarship, mainly because they have a depth and breadth that doesn't seem to get replicated in newer, recent works. With public domain pricing, it's hard to resist and worth having on hand when doing a deep dive on a particular subject. There are times when it has what I need when other resources don't, so it's definitely worth having. Because it's 170 years old, it's got some disadvantages associated with not being up-to-date, but it's a tool that has it's uses and occasionally is the only thing that gets the job done. If someone is considering it, I would recommend getting the Gesenius Bundle, because the Gesenius Hebrew Grammar is still frequently cited in modern works. Again, depth and breadth is the advantage.

https://www.logos.com/product/6559/gesenius-hebrew-bundle

That said, this bundle is part of many base packages, and many folks can probably get the G. bundle plus a few other items for not much more than the bundle alone. 

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