Verbum Search through Tip of the Day #20 - with apologies for how formatting copied over

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MJ. Smith | Forum Activity | Posted: Sun, Sep 20 2020 4:42 PM

Tip 20: Logos Morphology Charts (Interactive)

Please be generous with your additional details, corrections, suggestions, and other feedback. This is being built in a .docx file for a PBB which will be shared periodically.

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From Verbum Help:

Morphology Charts

Interactive paradigm charts displaying the forms in which a given lemma appears in the biblical text. Given a lemma (original language or transliterated), this tool plots the forms of that lemma into a grid with frequency numbers. This is useful for learning about word forms and common usage. The Morphology Charts interactive requires a morphologically tagged Bible resource that supports the Logos Hebrew Morphology (like the LHB) or Logos Greek Morphology (like the SBLGNT).

Coverage

The following lemmas are covered in both Greek and Hebrew:

•        Verbs (including articiples)

•        Nouns

•        Adjectives

The following are only covered in Greek:

•        Pronouns

•        Articles

Other parts of speech such as particles, adverbs, or interjections that do not have morphological characteristics to chart are not covered.[1]

On mouse over, the pop up for Morphology Charts describes its coverage. This is critical to understand as many complaints regarding the charts are based on assuming it is a more generalized grammatical tool rather than laser-focused on the Biblical text.

The Morphology Charts are astoundingly boring as all the occurrence of the lemma have the same morphological form – noun, masculine, singular, absolute. Note the count of 61 (all instances) in every case. Note the expansion of the ellipse on mouse over.

If that data seems familiar, you may be remembering the parsing given in the lower left on mouse over a word in your Bible with a reverse interlinear.

The Morphology Chart defaults to a compact form in which potential morphological forms that are not attested in the Lexham Hebrew Bible are suppressed. The “Show empty” serves as a toggle. With empty rows shown, the structure of the morphology of the noun is more obvious:

To use this information, one must understand what is being presented. First, one must recognize that grammar is a model of how a particular language is structured based on what one observes in the language. It is not prescriptive i.e. telling one how it should be used. Any grammar will run into oddities that don’t fit the model – perhaps borrowings from other languages, remnants of early usage, . . . From Wikipedia:

In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a speech community.

All academic research in linguistics is descriptive; like all other scientific disciplines, it seeks to describe reality, without the bias of preconceived ideas about how it ought to be.

Second, one must have a reliable source of linguistic definitions that are not tied to a single language but can be used across Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Syriac, Latin, Coptic, Gothic, English, German, Chinese, etc. The online SIL Glossary of Linguistic Terms is an appropriate source. A group of Verbum users may have access to this within Verbum as International Linguistics Department. 1996–. Glossary of Linguistic Terms. SIL International.

Some relevant entries:

Noun

Definition: 

A noun is a member of a syntactic class

  • that includes words which refer to people, places, things, ideas, or concepts
  • whose members may act as any of the following: subjects of the verb, objects of the verb, indirect object of the verb, or object of a preposition (or postposition), and
  • most of whose members have inherently determined grammatical gender (in languages which inflect for gender).

Discussion: 

Nouns embody one of the most time-stable concepts in a language. As with verbs, however, this time-stability criterion defines only the prototypical nouns. Other, non-prototypical nouns must be identified by distributional similarities to prototypical nouns.

Kinds: 

Examples: 

(English)

  • rock
  • tree
  • dog
  • person

These nouns are prototypical nouns in English because they are perceived as concrete, physical, compact entities which do not change significantly over time.

The following nouns are less prototypical because they represent concepts or items that are not perceived as staying the same for a long period of time, or are not concrete:

  • fist
  • beauty

See Also: 

Subject

Object

Indirect Object

Grammatical Category

Inflection

Prototype

Source: 

Crystal 1980 244

Hartmann and Stork 1972 154

Mish 1991 808

Givón 1984 51–52

Payne, T. 1997a 33, 39–41

This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library. Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.

 

Number

Definition: 

Number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" or "more than one").

The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun.

Kinds: 

Examples: 

(English)

In the word girls, plural number is marked by the suffix -s.

See Also: 

Grammatical Category

Noun

Pronoun

Verb (Linguistics)

Agreement

Referent

Source: 

Crystal 1980 245

Hartmann and Stork 1972 155

Mish 1991 811

This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library. Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.

 

Grammatical Gender

Definition: 

Grammatical gender is a noun class system, composed of two or three classes, whose nouns that have human male and female referents tend to be in separate classes. Other nouns that are classified in the same way in the language may not be classed by any correlation with natural sex distinctions.

Kinds: 

See Also: 

Noun

Referent

Source: 

Hartmann and Stork 1972 93

Foley, W. and Van Valin 1984 325

Mish 1991 510

Crystal 1985 133

Dixon 1968 105

Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik 1985 314

This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library. Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.

Not found in SIL: absolute state vs. construct state comes from unfoldingWord Hebrew Grammar:

State Absolute

Summary

The absolute state is the standard form of a word (noun, adjective, participle, or infinitive) in contrast to a modified form called the construct state. A word in the absolute state can take a prefix but not a suffix.

Article

Nounsadjectivesparticiples and infinitives can appear in either the absolute state or the construct state. The absolute state is the standard form and consists of a longer ending as opposed to the shorter construct ending. The most fundamental difference between the two forms is that the construct form can take an attached suffix, but the absolute form cannot. Nouns, adjectives and participles can appear in either the absolute or the construct state for both masculine and feminine terms in both singular and plural forms. Because infinitives do not change form for either gender or number, there isusually only one infinitive construct form and one infinitive absolute form of a verb in Biblical Hebrew.

Note

Many masculine singular nouns appear exactly alike in both the absolute state and the construct state.

Form

Paradigm
Absolute State Paradigm
Parsing
Hebrew
Transliteration
Gloss
Noun, masculine singular absolute
סוּס
sus
stallion
Noun, masculine plural absolute
סוּסִים
susim
stallions
Noun, feminine singular absolute
סוּסָה
susah
mare
Noun, feminine plural absolute
סוּסוֹת
susoth
mares

Examples

Standing alone

In Biblical Hebrew, when a term stands alone and is not grammatically connected to another word, it appears in the absolute state. This category includes terms such as a subject/object of a verb or relative phrase, adjectives, adverbial nouns, etc.

Example: GEN 1:1

בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

bara ‘elohim ‘eth hashamayim we’eth ha’arets

he-created God [dir.obj] the-heavens and-[dir.obj]

the-earth.

God created the heavens and the earth.

Appearing with a prefix

The absolute state cannot take a suffix but can take a prefix, including a conjunction, preposition, definite article, or even a relative particle. For example, a term functioning as the object of a preposition can appear in the absolute state with a prefixed preposition, provided that there is no pronominal suffix. A term with both a prefixed preposition and a pronominal suffix would necessarily appear in the construct state.

Example: GEN 1:1

בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְאֵ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃

bara ‘elohim ‘eth hashamayim we’eth ha’arets

he-created God [dir.obj] the-heavens and-[dir.obj]

the-earth.

God created the heavens and the earth.

Concluding term of a construct chain

The final word in a construct chain always appears in the absolute state either with or without the definite article. This term is often called the “absolute noun.” If the absolute noun in a construct chain is definite, then the entire construct chain is definite. If the absolute noun is indefinite, then the entire construct chain is indefinite.

Indefinite construct chain

Example: 2SA 17:25

וַעֲמָשָׂ֣א בֶן־אִ֗ישׁ וּשְׁמֹו֙ יִתְרָ֣א

wa’amasa ven-‘ish ushemow yithra

and-Amasa son-of_man and-his-name Jether

Amasa was a son of a man named Jether

Example: EXO 15:3

אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה

‘ish milhamah

man-of war

warrior

 

Example: 2SA 17:25

וַעֲמָשָׂ֣א בֶן־אִ֗ישׁ וּשְׁמֹו֙ יִתְרָ֣א

wa’amasa ven-‘ish ushemow yithra

and-Amasa son-of_man and-his-name Jether

Amasa was a son of a man named Jether

Example: EXO 15:3

אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה

‘ish milhamah

man-of war

a warrior

Definite construct chain

Example: 2SA 14:26

בְּאֶ֥בֶן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃

be’even hammelekh

in-weight-of the-king.

by the weight of the king’s standard.

Example: JOS 4:9

אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֑ית

‘aron habberith

ark-of the-covenant

the ark of the covenant

 

Example: 1SA 20:27

בֵּ֣ן לְיִשַׁי֮

ben leyishay

son-of Jesse

the son of Jesse

 

Once one is certain that the linguistic concepts are understood, then one needs to understand the definitions of the Logos Hebrew Morphology scheme i.e. the definitions from Heiser, Michael S., and Vincent M. Setterholm. 2013; 2013. Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology. Lexham Press. If one is serious about using the morphologies within Verbum, I recommend making an Anki deck for these.

From Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology:

noun — A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or quality that can function as the subject or object of a verb. A noun is a word that stands for the name of something. A common noun is a noun that represents a non-specific member of a category of person, places, and things, as opposed to a proper noun, which is a specific member of a class. For example, common nouns would be words like “man” and “dog,” as opposed to the proper nouns “Bob” “Collie”. See GKC (morphology) §§79-96, (syntax) §§122-132; IBHS §§5-13; BHRG §§23-35; J.-M. (morphology) §§86-99, (syntax) §§134-140.[2]

proper name / noun A noun that refers to a particular or specific object (e.g., Thomas, Sunday), usually a person, thing or temporal name. Proper nouns are distinguished from common nouns in that the latter refers to one or all of the members of a class. See BHRG §23, §24.2.2.1.e; GKC §125d-h; IBHS §13.4.a; J.-M. §137b, §131n-o.

Some databases separate personal names from divine names and geographic names.[3]

 

gender The component of language that distinguishes words as either male or female. In living beings, grammatical gender will often (though not always) follow natural gender, but gender applied to non-living things is either metaphorical or only serves a grammatical function (Hebrew and Aramaic make use of gender agreement between nouns, pronouns, adjectives (including numerals) and verbs to increase cohesion - links between elements of the text that help it hang together and give it meaning). There is rarely any coherent explanation for why a non-living noun is a particular grammatical gender. Hebrew has two genders, masculine and feminine. See GKC §80, §122; J.-M. §89, §134; IBHS §6; BHRG §24.2.[4]

masculine One of the grammatical genders in Hebrew, the other being feminine. See J.-M. §89a-b, §96, §134; BHRG §24.2; IBHS §6.4.1, §6.5; GKC §80a-b, §93, §122.[5]

number The feature of a word that informs whether one (singular), two (dual) or more (plural) persons or things are referred to or performing an action. See BHRG §24.3; IBHS §7; J.-M. §90, §91, §135, §136; GKC §87, §88, §123, §124.Devil

singular This grammatical number generally indicates that one person or thing is referenced by the word / form. Some singular forms can be used collectively to indicate a whole group (e.g. “sheep”, “grain”). See J.-M. §89b-c, §135, §150c; IBHS §7.2; GKC §123; BHRG §24.3.[7]

absolute / construct This state tag is used in some databases for forms that could be either absolute or construct, where the state is determined by context rather than morphology.Music

absolute The normal state of the noun, infinitive or participle; the form the word takes when not in a bound construct relationship to another nominal. See BHRG §25.1.2; GKC §89a.[9]

It cannot be stressed too much: when using Verbum, know what you are looking at.

Search for morphology chart

To create a search to verify the contents of the Morphology Chart:

Step 1: Open Search Panel.

Step 2: Select a Morph Search.

Step 3: Set to Search All Morph Text in All Passages in Lexham Hebrew Bible for

Step 4: Set search argument to lemma:אַבְרָם (which I did via copy and paste)

Step 5: Set view to Analysis (yes, you may need to float the panel to get the best width)

Notice that all 61 occurrences are noun, masculine, singular, absolute.

Note this view allowed me to find the final difference in counts for the spark chart counts. The Lexham Hebrew Bible has an untranslated occurrence of אַבְרָם in Gen 16:16. I added this information into Tip 17 without a full explanation.



[1] Verbum Help (Bellingham, WA: Faithlife, 2018).

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

[2] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

[3] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

[4] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

[5] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

Devil Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

J.-M. Joüon, P., & Muraoka, T. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Revised English Edition. 2006. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.

IBHS Waltke, B. K., & O'Connor, M. P. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. 1990. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

[7] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

Music Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

BHRG Van der Merwe, C., Naudé, J., & Kroeze, J. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. 1999. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

GKC Gesenius, W., Kautzsch, E., & Cowley, A. E. Hebrew Grammar: Second English Edition. 1956. London: Oxford University Press.

[9] Michael S. Heiser and Vincent M. Setterholm, Glossary of Morpho-Syntactic Database Terminology (Lexham Press, 2013; 2013).

Orthodox Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev: "To be a theologian means to have experience of a personal encounter with God through prayer and worship."

Posts 5546
SineNomine | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 20 2020 4:57 PM

MJ. Smith:
The Morphology Charts are astounding boring

*astoundingly

Posts 33246
Forum MVP
MJ. Smith | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Sep 20 2020 5:47 PM

Thanks - corrected above and in the PBB .docx ....

Orthodox Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev: "To be a theologian means to have experience of a personal encounter with God through prayer and worship."

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