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Christian Alexander | Forum Activity | Posted: Wed, Nov 3 2021 5:57 AM

What does everyone think about the  New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis, 2nd Edition | NIDNTTE? Is it good for word studies? 

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John Fidel | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Nov 3 2021 9:17 AM

Hi Christian,

I find the NIDNTTE to be a very good theological lexicon. It is limited in scope and does not contain every Greek lemma in the NT or LXX such as an analytical lexicon would. It is also very different from BDAG. So, for you personally it would depend on what other lexicons you have and your anticipated use of this resource. For what it is, I find it excellent and very in depth. If you would like an example, please let me know.

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Christian Alexander | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Nov 3 2021 12:20 PM

I would love an example of it for the Greek word Logos as in John 1. I do not have the BDAG but do have these lexicons: Louw Nida, Liddell & Scott, Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Thayer’s, Theological Lexicon of the NT. Any thoughts are appreciated.

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David Thomas | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Nov 3 2021 1:29 PM

Logos in BDAG - 

λόγος, ου, ὁ (verbal noun of λέγω in the sense ‘pick’; Hom.+).

① a communication whereby the mind finds expression, word
ⓐ of utterance, chiefly oral.
α. as expression, word (oratorical ability plus exceptional performance were distinguishing marks in Hellenic society, hence the frequent association of λ. and ἔργον ‘deed’; a sim. formulation as early as Il. 9, 443 μύθων τε ῥητῆρʼ ἔμεναι πρηκτῆρά τε ἔργων; Polystrat. p. 33 μὴ λόγῳ μόνον ἀλλʼ ἔργω; Just., A II, 4, 2 ἢ λόγῳ ἢ ἔργῳ and D. 35, 7 λόγον ἢ πρᾶξιν) δυνατὸς ἐν ἔργῳ κ. λόγῳ, i.e. an exceptional personage Lk 24:19;
• pl. of Moses Ac 7:22 (the contrast expressed w. a verb Choix 20, 6–8 ποιεῖ ἀγαθὸν ὄτι δύναται καὶ λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ of Apollordorus, a benefactor in Cyzicus, a flourishing city in Phrygia; sim. New Docs 7, 233, no. 10, 8f πολιτευόμενος … λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ; cp. IKourion 32, 8; without contrast Diod S 13, 101, 3 ἄνδρας λόγῳ δυνατούς; for sim. constructions using λέγω and πράσσω s. Danker, Benefactor 339–43).
• Cp. Ro 15:18; 2 Cor 10:11; Col 3:17; 2 Th 2:17; Hb 13:21 v.l.; 1J 3:18 (cp. Theognis 1, 87f Diehl3 μή μʼ ἔπεσιν μὲν στέργε κτλ.—For the contrast λόγῳ … ἀληθείᾳ cp. Diod S 13, 4, 1).
• In contrast to a sinful deed we also have the λόγος ἁμαρτίας sinful word Judaicon 172, 9.
• W. γνῶσις:
• ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ κ. πάσῃ γνώσει 1 Cor 1:5.
• ἰδιώτης τῷ λόγῳ, ἀλλʼ οὐ τῇ γνώσει 2 Cor 11:6.
• (Opp. δύναμις ‘revelation of power’) 1 Cor 4:19, 20.
• τὸ εὐαγγέλιον οὐκ ἐγενήθη ἐν λόγῳ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει 1 Th 1:5 (cp. Ar. 13, 7 of mythical accounts οὐδέν εἰσιν εἰ μὴ μόνον λόγοι ‘they’re nothing but words’).
• W. ἐπιστολή:
• 2 Th 2:2, 15.
• W. ἀναστροφή:
• 1 Ti 4:12; 1 Pt 3:1b.
• Opp. ‘be silent’: IRo 2:1.
• —μόνον εἰπὲ λόγῳ just say the word Mt 8:8; cp. Lk 7:7 (Ath. 17, 1 ὡς λόγῳ εἰπεῖν; 29, 2; Phalaris, Ep. 121, 1 λόγῳ λέγειν; cp. schol. on Pla. 341a ἐν λόγῳ μόνον εἰπεῖν).
• οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἀποκριθῆναι αὐτῷ λόγον no one was able to answer him a (single) word Mt 22:46; cp. 15:23 (cp. TestAbr A 16 p. 98, 11 [Stone p. 44] οὐκ ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ λόγον).
• —The (mighty) word (of one who performs miracles) ἐξέβαλεν τὰ πνεύματα λόγῳ Mt 8:16 (a rare use of λ. as ‘single utterance’, s. L-S-J-M s.v. VII).
• —διὰ λόγου by word of mouth (opp. ‘by letter’) Ac 15:27.—In the textually uncertain pass. Ac 20:24 the text as it stands in N., οὐδενὸς λόγου (v.l. λόγον) ποιοῦμαι τὴν ψυχὴν τιμίαν, may well mean:
• I do not consider my life worth a single word (cp. λόγου ἄξιον [ἄξιος 1a] and our ‘worth mention’; s. Conzelmann ad loc.).
β. The expression may take on a variety of formulations or topical nuances:
• what you say Mt 5:37;
• statement (PGM 4, 334) Lk 20:20;
• question (Sext. Emp., Math. 8, 295; 9, 133; Diog. L. 2, 116) ἐρωτήσω ὑμᾶς λόγον I will ask you a question (cp. TestJob 36:5; GrBar 5:1; ApcSed 13:6; Jos., Ant. 12, 99) Mt 21:24; cp. Mk 11:29; Lk 20:3;
• prayer (PGM 1, 25; 4, 90; 179; 230 al.; 5, 180; 196 al.) Mt 26:44; Mk 14:39.
• ἡγούμενος τοῦ λ. principal speaker Ac 14:12.
• W. epexeget.
• gen. λ. παρακλήσεως 13:15.
• W. κήρυγμα our manner of presentation and our proclamation 1 Cor 2:4a (but s. comm.).
• (W. διδασκαλία) preaching 1 Ti 5:17;
• prophecy (Biogr. p. 364 [Pythia]) J 2:22; 18:32.
• Command (Aeschyl., Pers. 363) Lk 4:36; 2 Pt 3:5, 7;
• via a letter 2 Th 3:14.
• Report, story (X., An. 1, 4, 7; Diod S 3, 40, 9; 19, 110, 1 λ. διαδιδόναι=spread a report; Appian, Iber. 80 §346, Maced. 4 §1 [both=rumor]; Diod S 32, 15, 3 ἦλθεν ὁ λ. ἐπί τινα=the report came to someone; Arrian, Anab. 7, 22, 1 λόγος λέγεται τοιόσδε=a story is told like this, Ind. 9, 2; Diod S 3, 18, 3 λ.=story, account; Jos., Ant. 19, 132; Tat. 27, 2 τοῦ καθʼ Ἡρακλέα λόγου) Mt 28:15; Mk 1:45; Lk 5:15 (λ. περί τινος as X., An. 6, 6, 13; Jos., Ant. 19, 127) 7:17; J 21:23.
• ἠκούσθη ὁ λόγος εἰς τὰ ὦτα τ. ἐκκλησίας the report came to the ears of the assembly in Jerusalem Ac 11:22.
• λόγον ἔχειν σοφίας have the appearance of wisdom, pass for wisdom Col 2:23 (cp. Pla., Epinomis 987b ἔχει λόγον; Demosth., C. Lept. 462 [20, 18] λόγον τινʼ ἔχον; but mng. 2f is possible).
• Proverb (Pla., Phdr. 17, 240c, Symp. 18, 195b, Gorg. 54, 499c, Leg. 6, 5, 757a; Socrat., Ep. 22, 1) J 4:37 (Ps.-Callisth. 1, 13, 7 ἀληθῶς ἐν τούτῳ ὁ λ. foll. by a proverb).
• Proclamation, instruction, teaching, message Lk 4:32; 10:39; J 4:41; 17:20; Ac 2:41; 4:4; 10:44; 20:7; 1 Cor 1:17; 2:1.
• In Ac18:15 ζητήματα περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου the sense appears to be someth. like this:
• controversial issues involving disputes about words and your way of life with λ. prob. referring to the presentation of controversial subjects, which in turn arouses heated ζητήματα debates.
• λόγος σοφίας proclamation of wisdom, speaking wisely 1 Cor 12:8a (Ps.-Phoc. 129 τῆς θεοπνεύστου σοφίης λ.);
• corresp. λ. γνώσεως vs. 8b.
• Cp. 14:9; 15:2; 2 Cor 1:18; 6:7; 10:10.
• λ. μαρτυρίας word of witness Rv 12:11.
• ὁ κατὰ τ. διδαχὴν πιστὸς λ. the message of faith, corresponding to the teaching Tit 1:9;
• the opp. 2 Ti 2:17.
• A speech (Aristot. p. 14b, 2; Diod S 40, 5a) διὰ λόγου πολλοῦ in a long speech Ac 15:32; cp. 20:2.
• λ. κολακείας flattering speech 1 Th 2:5.
• Speaking gener. 2 Cor 8:7; Eph 6:19; Col 4:6; D 2:5.
• ἐν λόγῳ πταίειν make a mistake in what one says Js 3:2.
• —Of God’s word, command, commission (LXX; ParJer 5:19 κατηχῆσαι αὐτοὺς τὸν λόγον; SyrBar 13:2; ApcSed 14:10; Just., D. 84, 2; Ael. Aristid. hears a ἱερὸς λ. at night fr. a god: 28, 116 K.=49, p. 529 D.; Sextus 24) ἠκυρώσατε τ. λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ Mt 15:6 (v.l. νόμον, ἐντολήν); cp. Mk 7:13.
• —J 5:38; 8:55; 10:35; Ro 3:4 (Ps 50:6).
• Of God’s promise Ro 9:6, 9 (but these two vss., and Gal 5:14 below, prob. fit better under 2a), 28 (Is 10:22f).
• Cp. Hb 2:2; 4:2 (s. ἀκοή 4b); 7:28; 12:19.
• For B 15:1 see 1aδ.
• The whole law (as the expr. εἴ τι ἑτέρα ἐντολή indicates not limited to a narrow list of commandments), acc. to Ro 13:9.
• In what is prob. a play on words (s. 2a and b), Gal 5:14 (s. 2a below) is summed up in the λόγος as expressed in Lev 19:18.
• —That which God has created ἁγιάζεται διὰ λόγου θεοῦ 1 Ti 4:5;
• in line w. the context, this hardly refers to God’s creative word (so SibOr 3, 20; PtK 2; πάντα γὰρ λόγῳ ποιήσας ὁ θεός Theoph. Ant. 2, 18 [144, 8]), but to table prayers which use biblical expressions.
• The divine word as judge of thoughts Hb 4:12.
• τελεσθήσονται οἱ λ. τοῦ θεοῦ Ac 17:17; cp. 19:9.
• —Of the divine revelation through Christ and his messengers (Just., A I, 61, 9 λόγον … παρὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων ἐμάθομεν τοῦτον) θεὸς ἐφανέρωσεν τὸν λ. αὐτοῦ ἐν κηρύγματι Tit 1:3.
• δέδωκα αὐτοῖς τὸν λ. σου J 17:14; cp. vss.
• 6, 17; 1J 1:10; 2:14.
• ἵνα μὴ ὁ λ. τοῦ θεοῦ βλασφημῆται Tit 2:5.
• The apostles and other preachers, w. ref. to the λόγος of God, are said to:
• λαλεῖν Ac 4:29, 31; 13:46; Phil 1:14; Hb 13:7;
• καταγγέλλειν Ac 13:5; 17:13;
• διδάσκειν 18:11;
• μαρτυρεῖν Rv 1:2.
• Of their hearers it is said:
• τὸν λ. τοῦ θεοῦ ἀκούειν Ac 13:7;
• δέχεσθαι 8:14; 11:1.
• Of the λ. τοῦ θεοῦ itself we read:
• ηὔξανεν Ac 6:7; 12:24; 19:20;
• οὐ δέδεται 2 Ti 2:9.
• In these places and many others ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ is simply the Christian message, the gospel: Lk 5:1; 8:11, 21; 11:28 (Simplicius in Epict. p. 1, 20 μὴ μόνον ἀκουόντων ἀλλὰ πασχόντων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων=let the message have its effect on oneself); Ac 6:2 (s. καταλείπω 7c; for prob. commercial metaph. s. 2a below); 13:44 v.l. (for κυρίου); 16:32 v.l.; 1 Cor 14:36; 2 Cor 2:17; 4:2; Col 1:25; 1 Pt 1:23; Rv 1:9; 6:9; 20:4; IPhld 11:1.
• Cp. 1 Th 2:13ab; 1J 2:5.
• —Since this ‘divine word’ is brought to humanity through Christ, his word can be used in the same sense:
• ὁ λόγος μου J 5:24; cp. 8:31, 37, 43, 51f; 12:48; 14:23f; 15:3, 20b; Rv 3:8.
• ὁ λόγος τοῦ Χριστοῦ Col 3:16; cp. Hb 6:1.
• ὁ λ. τοῦ κυρίου Ac 8:25; 12:24 v.l.; 13:44, 48f; 14:25 v.l.; 15:35, 36; 16:32 (cp. λ. θεοῦ); 19:10; 1 Th 1:8; 2 Th 3:1.
• Pl. Mk 8:38 (Lk 9:26); 1 Ti 6:3; cp. Lk 24:44;
• s. also 1aδ.
• —Or it is called simply ὁ λόγος=the ‘Word’, for no misunderstanding would be possible among Christians:
• Mt 13:20–23; Mk 2:2; 4:14–20, 33; 8:32 (s. 1aε below); 16:20; Lk 1:2; 8:12f, 15; Ac 6:4; 8:4; 10:36 (on the syntax s. FNeirynck, ETL 60, ’84, 118–23); 11:19; 14:25 (cp. λ. κυρίου above); 16:6; 17:11; 18:5; Gal 6:6; Phil 1:14; Col 4:3; 1 Th 1:6; 2 Ti 4:2; Js 1:21ff; 1 Pt 2:8; 3:1; 1J 2:7;
• AcPl Ha 7, 6 (so also Mel., HE 4, 26, 13; Ath. 2, 3).
• —Somet. the ‘Word’ is more closely defined by a gen.:
• ὁ λ. τῆς βασιλείας the word of the reign/rule (of God) Mt 13:19.
• τῆς σωτηρίας Ac 13:26.
• τῆς καταλλαγῆς 2 Cor 5:19.
• τοῦ σταυροῦ 1 Cor 1:18.
• δικαιοσύνης (q.v. 3a) Hb 5:13.
• ζωῆς Phil 2:16.
• (τῆς) ἀληθείας (Theoph. Ant. 3, 4 [p. 212, 2]; cp. περὶ ἀληθείας Hippol., Ref. 10, 6, 1) Eph 1:13; Col 1:5; 2 Ti 2:15; Js 1:18;
• AcPl Ha 8, 8 (Just., D. 121, 2).
• τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ (=τοῦ κυρίου) Ac 14:3; 20:32.
• (Differently the pl. οἱ λόγοι τ. χάριτος gracious words Lk 4:22; cp. Marcellinus, Vi. Thu. 57 Hude λόγοι εἰρωνείας.) ὁ λ. τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ac 15:7;
• ὁ τοῦ Χριστιανισμοῦ λ. MPol 10:1.
• In Rv 3:10 the gospel is described by the ‘One who has the key of David’ as ὁ λ. τῆς ὑπομονῆς μου my word of endurance (W-S. §30, 12c).
• λ. τῶν ὑ[πο]μονῶν AcPl Ha 6, 11.
• παρελάβετε τὸν λ. ὅτι AcPl Ha 8, 25.
• —The pastoral letters favor the expr. πιστὸς ὁ λόγος (sc. ἐστίν, and s. πιστός 1b) 1 Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; 2 Ti 2:11; Tit 3:8; cp. Rv 21:5; 22:6.
• λ. ὑγιής sound preaching Tit 2:8;
• cp. the pl. ὑγιαίνοντες λόγοι 2 Ti 1:13 (on medicinal use of words for the mind or soul s. VLeinieks, The City of Dionysos ’96, 115–22, on Eur.).
• —The pl. is also used gener. of Christian teachings, the words of the gospel Lk 1:4 (s. κατηχέω 2a); 1 Th 4:18.
• οἱ λ. τῆς πίστεως 1 Ti 4:6.
• On λόγοι κυριακοί for λόγια κυριακά in the title of the Papias document s. ἐξήγησις 2.
• —JSchniewind, Die Begriffe Wort und Evangelium bei Pls, diss. Bonn 1910;
• RAsting (εὐαγγέλιον, end).
γ. of an individual declaration or remark:
• assertion, declaration, speech ἀκούσαντες τὸν λ. when they heard the statement Mt 15:12; cp. 19:11, 22; 22:15; Mk 5:36.
• διὰ τοῦτον τὸν λ. because of this statement of yours 7:29 (TestAbr A 15 p. 95, 29 [Stone p. 38] τὸν λ. τοῦτον; ApcMos 25 εἰς τὸν λόγον σου κρινῶ σε).
• Cp. 10:22; 12:13; Lk 1:29; 22:61 v.l. (for ῥήματος); J 4:39, 50; 6:60; 7:36, 40 v.l.; 15:20a; 18:9; 19:8; Ac 6:5; 7:29; 20:38; 22:22; 1 Th 4:15.
• ὃς ἐὰν εἴπῃ λόγον κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου whoever utters a (defamatory) word against the Son of Humanity Mt 12:32 (λ. εἰπεῖν κατά τινος as Jos., Ant. 15, 81); cp. Lk 12:10.
• λόγος σαπρός unwholesome talk Eph 4:29.
• λόγον ποιεῖσθαι make a speech Ac 11:2 D (cp. Hyperid. 3, 20; Jos., Ant. 11, 86).
δ. the pl. (οἱ) λόγοι is used, on the one hand, of words uttered on various occasions, of speeches or instruction given here and there by humans or transcendent beings (TestAbr A 14 p. 94, 19 [Stone p. 36]; Jos., Ant. 4, 264; Just., D. 100, 3) ἐκ τῶν λόγων σου δικαιωθήσῃ (καταδικασθήσῃ) Mt 12:37ab; 24:35; Mk 13:31; Lk 21:33; Ac 2:40; 7:22 (ἐν λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις αὐτοῦ. On the word-deed pair cp. Dio Chrys. 4, 6 the λόγοι and ἔργα of Diogenes; s. α above).
• οἱ δέκα λόγοι the ten commandments (Ex 34:28; Dt 10:4; Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 168, Decal. 32; Jos., Ant. 3, 138; cp. 91f; Did., Gen. 36, 10) B 15:1.
• Ac 15:24; 20:35; 1 Cor 2:4b, 13; 14:19ab;
• κενοὶ λ. Eph 5:6;
• AcPl Ox 6, 13 (cp. Aa 1, 241, 14); Dg 8:2;
• πλαστοὶ λ. 2 Pt 2:3.
• λ. πονηροί 3J 10.
• —Also of words and exprs.
• that form a unity, whether it be connected discourse (Jos., Ant. 15, 126; Just., A II, 12, 6, D. 11, 5; 81, 3 al.), a conversation, or parts of one and the same teaching, or expositions on the same subject (Diod S 16, 2, 3 μετέσχε τῶν Πυθαγορίων λόγων; Dio Chrys. 37 [54], 1; Ael. Aristid. 50, 55 K.=26 p. 519 D.: οἱ Πλάτωνος λόγοι; PsSol 17:43 [words of the Messiah]; AscIs 3:12 οἱ λόγοι τοῦ Βελχειρά) πᾶς ὅστις ἀκούει μου τοὺς λόγους τούτους Mt 7:24; cp. vss.
• 26, 28; 10:14; 19:1; 26:1; Mk 10:24; Lk 1:20; 6:47; 9:28, 44.
• ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν ἐν λόγοις ἱκανοῖς he questioned him at some length 23:9.
• τίνες οἱ λ. οὗτοι οὓς ἀντιβάλλετε; what is this conversation that you are holding? 24:17; J 7:40 (s. γ); 10:19; J 14:24a; 19:13; Ac 2:22; 5:5, 24; 16:36; 2 Ti 4:15; 1 Cl 13:1; 46:7.
• λόγοις φθοριμαίοις AcPlCor 1:2.
ε. the subject under discussion, matter, thing gener. (Theognis 1055 Diehl; Hdt. 8, 65 μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ τὸν λόγον τοῦτον εἴπῃς. Cp. Hebr. דָּבָר) τὸν λ. ἐκράτησαν they took up the subject Mk 9:10; cp. Mt. 21:24 (s. 1aβ beg.).
• οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ you have no share in this matter Ac 8:21.
• ἰδεῖν περὶ τ. λόγου τούτου look into this matter 15:6.
• ἔχειν πρός τινα λόγον have a complaint against someone (cp. Demosth. 35, 55 ἐμοὶ πρὸς τούτους ὁ λόγος; PIand 16, 3 δίκαιον λόγον ἔχει πρὸς σέ) 19:38.
• παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας Mt 5:32; 19:9 v.l. (2d is also prob.).
• —Perh. also Mk 8:32 he discussed the subject quite freely (but s. 1aβ above).
ⓑ of literary or oratorical productions:
• of the separate books of a work (Hdt. 5, 36 ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ τ. λόγων; Pla., Parmen. 2, 127d ὁ πρῶτος λόγος; Philo, Omn. Prob. Lib. 1 ὁ μὲν πρότερος λόγος ἦν ἡμῖν, ὦ Θεόδοτε, περὶ τοῦ … ) treatise Ac 1:1 (s. on the prologue to Ac: AHilgenfeld, ZWT 41, 1898, 619ff; AGercke, Her 29, 1894, 373ff; RLaqueur, Her 46, 1911, 161ff; Norden, Agn. Th. 311ff; JCreed, JTS 35, ’34, 176–82; Goodsp., Probs. 119–21).
• Παπίας … πέντε λόγους κυριακῶν λογίων ἔγραψεν Papias (11:1; cp. 3:1 e; 11:2; 12:2).
• —περὶ οὗ πολὺς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος about this we have much to say Hb 5:11.
• Hb is described as ὁ λ. τῆς παρακλήσεως a word of exhortation (in literary form) 13:22.
• Of writings that are part of Holy Scripture ὁ λ. Ἠσαΐου J 12:38.
• ὁ λ. ὁ ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γεγραμμένος 15:25;
• ὁ προφητικὸς λ. 2 Pt 1:19; 2 Cl 11:2 (quot. of unknown orig.);
• AcPl Ha 8, 27//BMM recto 35 (Just., D. 77, 2 al.).
• ὁ ἅγιος λ. the holy word 1 Cl 56:3.
• ὁ λ. ὁ γεγραμμένος 1 Cor 15:54 (Is 25:8 and Hos 13:14 follow).
• Pl. οἱ λόγοι τ. προφητῶν Ac 15:15.
• ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαΐου Lk 3:4 (Pla., 7th Epistle 335a πείθεσθαι ἀεὶ χρὴ τοῖς παλαιοῖς καὶ ἱεροῖς λόγοις; TestJob 1:1 βίβλος λόγων Ἰώβ; ParJer 9:32 v.l. τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν λόγων Ἱερεμίου; ApcEsdr 1:1 καὶ ἀποκάλυψις τοῦ … Ἐσδράμ; ApcSed prol.; Just., D. 72, 3f).
• —Of the content of Rv:
• ὁ ἀναγινώσκων τ. λόγους τῆς προφητείας 1:3.
• οἱ λόγοι (τ. προφητείας) τ. βιβλίου τούτου 22:7, 9f, 18f.
② computation, reckoning
ⓐ a formal accounting, esp. of one’s actions, and freq. with fig.
• extension of commercial terminology account, accounts, reckoning λόγον δοῦναι (Hdt. 8, 100; X., Cyr. 1, 4, 3; Diod S 3, 46, 4; SIG 1099, 16; BGU 164, 21; Jos., Ant. 16, 120; Just., D. 115, 6) give account, make an accounting ἕκαστος περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λόγον δώσει τ. θεῷ Ro 14:12.
• Also λ. ἀποδοῦναι abs. (Just., D. 116, 1 al.; Diod S 16, 56, 4; 19, 9, 4) Hb 13:17.
• τινί to someone (Diod S 16, 27, 4; Plut., Alcib. 7, 3; Chariton 7, 6, 2; SIG 631, 13 τᾷ πόλει; 2 Ch 34:28; Da 6:3 Theod.; Jos., Bell. 1, 209) τῷ ἑτοίμως ἔχοντι κρῖναι 1 Pt 4:5.
• τινὸς of someth. (SIG 1044, 46; 1105, 10 τοῦ ἀναλώματος; Jos., Ant. 19, 307) Lk 16:2 (here λ. w. the art.; on the subject of undergoing an audit cp. Aeschin. 3, 22).
• Likew. περί τινος (Diod S 18, 60, 2 δοὺς αὑτῷ περὶ τούτων λόγον=taking account [considering] with himself; BGU 98, 25 περὶ τούτου) Mt 12:36; Ac 19:40.
• ὑπέρ τινος concerning someone Hv 3, 9, 10.
• —αἰτεῖν τινα λόγον περί τινος call someone to account for someth. 1 Pt 3:15 (cp. Pla., Pol. 285e; Dio Chrys. 20 [37], 30; Apc4Esdr Fgm. b ἕκαστος ὑπὸ τοῦ οἰκείου ἔργου τὸν λόγον ἀπαιτηθήσεται; Just., A I, 17, 4. For another perspective s. d below.).
• —Of banking responsibility ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ (PStras 72, 10 [III A.D.] ὁ τῶν θεῶν λ.; PHerm 108 [III A.D.] λ. τοῦ Σαραπείου) in wordplay Ac 6:2 (w. τράπεζα q.v. 1c);
• s. also 1aβ.
• —Of a ledger heading (POxy 1333 [II/III A.D.] δὸς αὐτῳ λόγῳ θεωρικῶν=credit him under ‘festivals’; for others s. Preisig., Wörterbuch s.v. λ. 14; s. also Fachwörter 119) Ro 9:6 (the point is that God’s ‘list’ of Israelites is accurate; on ἐκπίπτω in the sense ‘is not deficient’ s. s.v. 4);
• vs. 9 (the ‘count’ is subsumed by metonymy in divine promise); Gal 5:14 (all moral obligations come under one ‘entry’: ‘you shall love your neighbor as yourself’; for commercial association of ἀναλίσκω vs. 15, which rounds out the wordplay, s. s.v.).
• The contexts of these three passages suggest strong probability for commercial associations;
• for another view s. 1aβ.
ⓑ settlement (of an account) (εἰς λόγον commercial t.t. ‘in settlement of an account’ POxy 275, 19; 21) εἰς λόγον δόσεως κ. λήμψεως in settlement of a mutual account (lit., ‘of giving and receiving’, ‘of debit and credit’) Phil 4:15 (cp. Plut., Mor. 11b λόγον δοῦναι καὶ λαβεῖν; a parallel formulation POxy 1134, 10 [421 A.D.] λ. λήμματος καὶ ἐξοδιασμοῦ=ledger of income and expenditures);
• for the linked accounting terms δόσις and λήμψις s. PCairMasp 151, 208 [VI A.D.].
• The same ideas are in the background of εἰς λόγον ὑμῶν credited to your account vs 17.
• —συναίρειν λόγον settle accounts (BGU 775, 18f. The mid. in the same mng. PFay109, 6 [I A.D.]; POxy 113, 27f.—Dssm., LO 94 [LAE 118f]) μετά τινος Mt 18:23; 25:19.
ⓒ reflection, respect, regard εἰς λόγον τινός with regard to, for the sake of (Thu. 3, 46, 4; Demosth. 19, 142 εἰς ἀρετῆς λόγον; Polyb. 11, 28, 8; Ath. 31, 1; Ael. Aristid. 39 p. 743 D.: εἰς δεινότητος λ.) εἰς λ. τιμῆς IPhld 11:2.
• εἰς λ. θεοῦ ISm 10:1.
ⓓ reason for or cause of someth., reason, ground, motive (Just., D. 94, 3 δότε μοι λόγον, ὅτου χάριν … ; Ath. 30, 3 τὶς γὰρ … λόγος; Dio Chrys. 64 [14], 18 ἐκ τούτου τ. λόγου; Appian, Hann. 29 §126 τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ; Iambl., Vi. Pyth. 28, 155) τίνι λόγω; for what reason? Ac 10:29 (cp. Pla., Gorg. 512c τίνι δικαίῳ λ.; Appian, Mithrid. 57 §232 τίνι λόγῳ;).
• λόγον περὶ τῆς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐλπίδος 1 Pt 3:15 (but s. a above);
• κατὰ λόγον Ac 18:14 (s. κατά B 5bβ).
• παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας Mt 5:32; 19:9 v.l. (though 1aε is also poss.).
ⓔ πρὸς ὃν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος (ἐστίν) with whom we have to do (i.e. to reckon) (Dio Chrys. 31, 123; other exx. in FBleek, Hb II/1, 1836, 590ff), in his capacity as judge (Libanius, Legat. Ulixis [=Declamatio IV] 2 F. τοῖς δὲ ἀδίκως ἀποκτενοῦσι καὶ πρὸς θεοὺς καὶ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους ὁ λόγος γίγνεται) Hb 4:13.
• οὐ πρὸς σάρκα ὁ λόγος, ἀλλὰ πρὸς θεόν he has to do not with flesh, but with God IMg 3:2.
ⓕ In Col 2:23 (s. 1aβ) λόγον μὲν ἔχοντα σοφίας may=make a case for wisdom (cp. λόγος ἡμῖν οὐδείς Plut., Mor. 870b).
③ the independent personified expression of God, the Logos.
• Our lit. shows traces of a way of thinking that was widespread in contemporary syncretism, as well as in Jewish wisdom lit. and Philo, the most prominent feature of which is the concept of the Logos, the independent, personified ‘Word’ (of God):
• GJs 11:2 (word of the angel to Mary) συνλήμψῃ ἐκ Λόγου αὐτοῦ (sc. τοῦ πάντων Δεσπότου).
• J 1:1abc, 14 (cp. Just., A I, 23, 2; Mel., P. 9, 61 and oft. by all apolog., exc.. Ar.).
• It is the distinctive teaching of the Fourth Gospel that this divine ‘Word’ took on human form in a historical person, that is, in Jesus (s. RSeeberg, Festgabe für AvHarnack ’21, 263–81.—Λόγος w. ζωή in gnostic speculation: Iren.1, 1, 1 [Harv. 1, 10, 4]; Aelian, VH 4, 20 ἐκάλουν τὸν Πρωταγόραν Λόγον. Similarly Favorinus [II A.D.]: Vorsokr. 80 A 1 ln. 22 [in Diog. L. 9, 50] of Democritus: ἐκαλεῖτο Σοφία. Equating a divinity with an abstraction that she personifies: Artem. 5, 18 φρόνησις εἶναι νομίζεται ἡ θεός [Athena]).
• Cp. 1J 1:1; Rv 19:13.
• εἷς θεός ἐστιν, ὁ φανερώσας ἑαυτὸν διὰ Ἰ. Χριστοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅς ἐστιν αὐτοῦ λόγος, ἀπὸ σιγῆς προελθών there is one God, who has revealed himself through Jesus Christ his Son, who is his ‘Word’ proceeding from silence (i.e., without an oral pronouncement: in a transcendent manner) IMg 8:2 (s. σιγή).
• The Lord as νόμος κ. λόγος PtK 1.
• Cp. Dg 11:2, 3, 7, 8; 12:9.
• —HClavier, TManson memorial vol., ’59, 81–93:
• the Alexandrian eternal λόγος is also implied in Hb 4:12; 13:7.
• —S. also the ‘Comma Johanneum’ (to the bibliography in RGG3 I, ’54 [HGreeven] add AJülicher, GGA 1905, 930–35; AvHarnack, SBBerlAk 1915, 572f [=Studien I ’31, 151f]; MMeinertz, Einl. in d. NT4 ’33, 309–11; AGreiff, TQ 114, ’33, 465–80; CDodd, The Joh. Epistles ’46; WThiele, ZNW 50, ’59, 61–73) ὁ πατήρ, ὁ λόγος καὶ τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμα 1J 5:7 v.l. (s. N. app.; Borger, TRu 52, ’87, 57f).
• (Such interpolations were not unheard of. According to Diog. L. 1, 48 some people maintain that Solon inserted the verse mentioning the Athenians after Il. 2, 557.—τῆς τριάδος, τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ λόγου αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς σοφίας αὐτοῦ Theoph. Ant. 2, 15 [p. 138, 19].)—On the Logos:
• EZeller, D. Philosophie der Griechen III 24 1903, 417–34;
• MHeinze, D. Lehre v. Logos in d. griech.
• Philosophie 1872;
• PWendland, Philo u. d. kynisch-stoische Diatribe (Beiträge z. Gesch. der griech. Philosophie u. Religion by Wendl. and OKern 1895, 1–75);
• AAall, Gesch. d. Logosidee 1896, 1899;
• MPohlenz, D. Stoa ’48f, I 482;
• 490 (index);
• LDürr, D. Wertung des göttl.
• Wortes im AT u. im ant.
• Orient ’38 (§9 of the Joh. Logos);
• EBréhier, Les idées philosophiques et religieuses de Philon d’Alexandrie 1907, 83–111; (2 ’25);
• JLebreton, Les théories du Logos au début de l’ère chrétienne 1907;
• ESchwartz, NGG 1908, 537–56;
• GVos, The Range of the Logos-Title in the Prologue of the Fourth Gospel:
• PTR 11, 1913, 365–419; 557–602;
• RHarris, The Origin of the Prologue to St. John’s Gospel 1917, Athena, Sophia and the Logos:
• BJRL 7, 1, 1922 p. 56–72;
• M-JLagrange, Vers le Logos de S. Jean:
• RB 32, 1923, 161–84, Le Logos de Philon:
• ibid. 321–71;
• HLeisegang, Logos:
• Pauly-W. XIII 1926, 1035–81;
• TGlasson, Heraclitus’ Alleged Logos Doctr., JTS 3, ’52, 231–38.
• —NWeinstein, Z. Genesis d. Agada 1901, 29–90;
• Billerb. II 302–33.
• —Rtzst., Zwei religionsgeschichtl.
• Fragen 1901, 47–132, Mysterienrel.3 1927, 428 index;
• WBousset, Kyrios Christos2 1921, 304ff; 316f;
• JKroll, D. Lehren d. Hermes Trismegistos1914, 418 index.
• —RBultmann, D. religionsgesch.
• Hintergrund des Prol. z. Joh.:
• HGunkel Festschr., 1923, II 1–26, Comm. ’41, 5ff;
• AAlexander, The Johannine Doctrine of the Logos:
• ET 36, 1925, 394–99; 467–72;
• (Rtzst. and) HSchaeder, Studien z. antiken Synkretismus 1926, 306–37; 350;
• GAvdBerghvanEysinga, In den beginne was de Logos:
• NThT 23, ’34, 105–23;
• JDillersberger, Das Wort von Logos ’35;
• RBury, The 4th Gosp. and the Logos-Doctrine ’40;
• EMay, CBQ 8, ’46, 438–47;
• GKnight, From Moses to Paul ’49, 120–29.
• TW IV 76–89; 126–40 (on this s. SLyonnet, Biblica 26, ’45, 126–31);
• CStange, ZST 21, ’50, 120–41;
• MBoismard, Le Prologue de St. Jean ’53;
• HLangkammer, BZ 9, ’65, 91–94;
• HRinggren, Word and Wisdom [hypostatization in Near East] ’47;
• WEltester, Haenchen Festschr., ’64, 109–34;
• HWeiss, Untersuchungen zur Kosmologie etc.
• , TU 97, ’66, 216–82;
• MRissi, Die Logoslieder im Prolog des vierten Evangeliums, TZ 31, ’75, 321–36;
• HLausberg, NAWG, Ph. ’87, 1 pp. 1–7.
• —B. 1262.
• DELG s.v. λέγω B 1.
• M-M. EDNT


William Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 598–601.

I have the older NIDNTT (Colin Brown) in dead tree/ Entry for Logos is about 65 pages

Logos in TDNT (Kittle) is about 65 pages on the group of words that included logos.

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John Fidel | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Nov 3 2021 2:06 PM

Christian Alexander:

I would love an example of it for the Greek word Logos as in John 1. I do not have the BDAG but do have these lexicons: Louw Nida, Liddell & Scott, Lexham Analytical Lexicon, Thayer’s, Theological Lexicon of the NT. Any thoughts are appreciated.

Note: formatting of the copy text is not the same as in the resource. Copying using the web app... you will get the idea.

Too long to copy logos. Here is beginning as used in  1JN 1.1:

ἀρχή G794 (archē), beginning, cause, authority; ἄρχω G806 (archō), to rule, mid. to begin; ἐνάρχομαι G1887, to begin; προενάρχομαι G4599, to begin (prior to another action or event); ἄρχων G807 (archōn), ruler, prince; ἀρχηγός G795 (archēgos), ruler, leader; ἀρχαῖος G792 (archaios), old, ancient Concepts: Beginning; Old; Ruler GL 1 The vb. ἄρχω occurs in Homer well over 100×, and its derivative noun ἀρχή about a dozen times, but both terms are extremely freq. in all periods of the language. The orig. meaning was evidently temporal, “to begin, be first, make a beginning of,” and by natural extension it came to indicate superiority, “to be first [in rank], be leader, govern, rule.” The former sense was gradually attached to the mid. voice, so that by the Hel. period the act. voice came to be used almost exclusively in the sense of authority. Thus the act. ptc., when used as a subt., ὁ ἄρχων, meant “the ruling one,” and eventually the ptc. by itself became a noun, “ruler” (of course, the ptc. of many other vbs. went through a sim. development). The noun ἀρχή preserved both senses with various nuances: (a) “beginning, origin, first principle, corner”; (b) “sovereignty, empire, ruling office, magistrate.” Numerous derivatives and compounds are attested, such as ἀρχαῖος (“from the beginning, ancient, old-fashioned”), ἀρχέλαος (“leader of the people”), ἀρχιτέκτων (“chief builder”), ἑκατοντάρχης (“leader of a hundred”), ἱππάρχης (“leader of the cavalry”), etc. See also separate articles on ἀπαρχή G569 and ὑπάρχω G5639. 2 The noun ἀρχή developed special meanings in Gk. philosophy: (a) It denotes the point at which something new begins in time, the end of which can be seen from the first. When one spoke of the beginning, the end (τέλος G5465) was also in view. Since the beginning comes out of the infinite, so the end will also lose itself in it. (b) It is the starting point, the cause, the first cause of all that is, the basic principle of all, e.g., water (Thales), infinity (Anaximander), air (Anaximenes). Gradually ἀρχή developed a meaning from the underlying cause to the underlying laws, which determine the development and progress of the cosmos. (See further TDNT 1:479–80.) JL The LXX uses ἄρχω c. 110× and ἀρχή c. 240× to render a remarkably large number of Heb. words (though many of these correspondences occur only once or twice). The following uses may be noted: 1 The vb. is most commonly (almost 50×) used as the rendering of Heb. חלל H2725 hiph., “to begin” (e.g., Gen 6:1; Josh 3:7). The usage is ordinary, with no special theological significance. In some 15 passages, ἄρχω translates מָשַׁל II H5440, “to rule, govern” (e.g., Gen 1:18; Deut 15:7; see below, sect. 3). 2 The noun ἀρχή renders Heb. רֹאשׁ I H8031, “head, beginning, leader, total, etc.,” more than 50× (e.g., Gen 2:10 [river headwaters]; Ruth 1:22 [beginning of harvest]; Neh 9:17 [leader]). Most of the occurrences are not temporal, and some of the uses do not reflect common Gk. idiom (e.g., when used in the sense “sum total, census” [Num 1:2 et al.] or “military company” [1 Sam 11:11] or “summit” [Jer 22:6, NETS “realm”]). The temporal sense is more consistent when translating תְּחִלָּה H9378 (18×, e.g., Gen 41:21; Ruth 1:22) and רֵאשִׁית H8040 (16×, e.g., Gen 1:1; Num 24:20). On three occasions, the phrase ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς, “from the beginning” (i.e., long ago) is used to translate Heb. מֵעוֹלָם (Josh 24:2; Isa 63:16, 19; the term עוֹלָם H6409 means “long time, age,” often with the connotation “eternity” [see αἰών G172]), and a half dozen times it renders the equivalent expression מִקֶּדֶם (e.g., Neh 12:46; Hab 1:12; קֶדֶם H7710 means “in front, before, in ancient times”). This language appears to indicate not simply an abstract concept of temporal distance but the more concrete notion of a state that once was, such as the beginning of a nation or of the world. Some other instances of קֶדֶם (or a cognate) are translated with the adj. ἀρχαῖος, “old, ancient” (e.g., Isa 37:26, in par. with πάλαι; see παλαιός G4094). In Ps 139:5 (LXX 138:5) τὰ ἀρχαῖα, “the first [earlier, former, ancient] things,” are contrasted with τὰ ἔσχατα, “the latter [last, final] things,” as a way of describing πάντα, “all things” (a misreading of Heb. אָחוֹר וַקֶדֶם, which here means “behind and in front”). 3 The connection between the temporal sense and the notion of authority or superiority is reflected in various passages, e.g., when fearing the Lord is described as ἀρχὴ σοφίας, “the beginning of wisdom” (Ps 111:10 [110:10], for רֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה). Clearly, the fear of God is viewed not merely as the initial component of wisdom, but rather as a fundamental, ruling principle that governs the whole—beginning, process, end. The element of “ruling” is evident when the word is used to render Heb. מֶמְשָׁלָה H4939, “authority, dominion” (only Gen 1:16 [2×]; Jer 34:1 [41:1]; Mic 4:8), and this aspect is more prominent with the vb. ἄρχω, which, as mentioned above, renders מָשַׁל with some frequency. Particularly clear is the use of ἄρχων, which occurs well over 600× as the rendering of such Heb. nouns as שַׂר H8569, “official, commander” (Gen 12:15 and over 240×), רֹאשׁ I H8031, “head, leader, etc.” (Num 1:4 and over 100×), נָשִׂיא I H5954, “tribal chief, ruler” (Gen 25:16 and over 90×), מֶלֶךְ I H4889, “king” (Gen 49:20 and almost 20×), etc. Its close synonym ἀρχηγός occurs over 30× (but never in some books, such as Genesis, Leviticus, Joshua, Samuel, Kings), usually as the rendering of רֹאשׁ (Exod 6:14). In two passages both Gk. terms are used because two different Heb. words had to be represented (Num 10:4; 1 Chr 26:26), but elsewhere the reason for choosing one term over the other is not always clear (indeed, both terms are used for the repeated רֹאשׁ in 1 Chr 5:24). The suggestion that ἀρχηγός refers more to the actual exercise of power than to the authority behind it is difficult to establish. In addition, several compounds appear first in the LXX and may be new coinages, such as ἀρχιδεσμοφύλαξ, “chief prison guard” (Gen 39:21; 22:23), and ἀρχίφυλος, “tribal chief” (only Deut 29:9; Josh 21:1; 1 Esd 2:5). NT 1 The vb. ἄρχω occurs c. 85× in the NT, and all but 5 of these are found in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts. Remarkably, the act. voice, meaning “to rule,” occurs only twice (Mark 10:42; Rom 15:12 [a LXX quotation]; note that Jos. uses the act. 135× out of 342; Philo 199× out of 411). Thus virtually all occurrences of this vb. in the NT are in the mid., with the sense “to begin.” In a number of these instances, the word has a weakened or so-called pleonastic sense, simply introducing a new action or signaling a shift in activity (this usage is thought to reflect a Sem. idiom, esp. with Aram. שׁרא; see G. Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, 2nd ed. [1930], 21–22; cf. also Heb. הוֹאֶל in Judg 19:6, which LXX [cod. A] renders with ἀρξάμενος). Luke, e.g., after reporting that Jesus read a portion of Isaiah in the synagogue, writes as follows: ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν, lit., “And he began to say to them, ‘Today this scripture is fulfilled in your ears’ ” (Luke 4:21). The NIV tries to remove the awkwardness by rendering, “and he began by saying,” but it is apparent that the ἤρξατο does not require transl.—a simple “and then he said” captures the meaning (sim. Acts 11:4, where ἀρξάμενος δὲ Πέτρος ἐξετίθετο suggests, “in response, Peter explained”; and cf. Luke 3:8 [μὴ ἄρξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς] with the version in Matt 3:9 [μὴ δόξητε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς]). At times the interpretation is debatable. Luke says to Theophilus in Acts 1:1 that in his former book he reported the things that ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς ποιεῖν τε καὶ διδάσκειν (“… Jesus began to do and teach”). Some view this use as pleonastic and propose the transl., “the things that Jesus did and taught” (e.g., BDAG 140 [2.a.β]), but others argue that Luke is viewing the Acts narrative as a continuation of Jesus’ ministry. Certainly the vb. has its full meaning in Luke 3:23: “Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry.” Other exx. where it marks a temporal beginning incl. Matt 16:21 (“From that time on Jesus began to explain …”), Luke 24:27 (where the risen one began his explanation of the Scriptures with Moses and the Prophets), and 1 Pet 4:17 (judgment “begins with” [i.e., comes first to] the family of God and then moves on to unbelievers). 2 The noun ἁρχή occurs 55×, incl. 18× in the Johannine writings (8× each in the Gospel of John and in 1 John, and 2× in 2 John), 11× in the Pauline corpus (7× in Ephesians-Colossians), 6× in Hebrews. We may classify the usages according to the word’s two basic meanings of “beginning” and “authority.” (a) The sense “beginning, commencement, inception, initial point, origin” can be applied to a variety of actions or states (in an extended sense, even of objects, as in Acts 10:11 and 11:5, where the points of a sheet that we call “corners” or “ends” are described as ἀρχαί; note also the meaning “basis, foundation principle” in Heb 5:12; 6:1). Thus, e.g., “the beginning of the good news about Jesus Christ” (Mark 1:1) apparently refers to the preparatory work of John the Baptist (1:4–8), i.e., a set of prior temporal events that introduce the apostolic message about Jesus (cf. R. H. Gundry, Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross [1993], 29–33, who discusses various interpretative options). Other passages use the phrase ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς when dealing with incidents associated with the initial stages of Jesus’ life or ministry (Luke 1:2; John 15:27; cf. Paul’s ref. to his own life in Acts 26:4). In a sim. temporal sense, “the beginning of birth pains” (Mark 13:8) refers to the initial sufferings of the end times. Acts 11:15 speaks of the first days of the church in Jerusalem, and Phil 4:15 of the beginning of Paul’s missionary activity. Of special interest in this connection are the statements in the letters of John that emphasize the command or message that the church had “since the beginning” (1 John 2:7, 24; 3:11; 2 John 5–6; cf. Heb 3:14, we must “hold our original conviction firmly to the very end” [lit., “the beginning of the confidence”]). The adverbial use of τὴν ἀρχήν in John 8:25 may have a temporal meaning (so NIV, “Just what I have been telling you from the beginning”), but some interpret it as an idiomatic way of expressing emphasis (so NRSV, “Why do I speak to you at all?”; see Jos. A.J. 1.100, σῶφρον εἶναι τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτοῖς μηδὲ χαρίσασθαι, “it was prudent not to grant them life at all”). In a number of passages, the use of ἀρχή has a stronger theological connotation insofar as the ref. is to the beginning of human history or even before that. The institution of marriage goes back to “the beginning of creation” (Mark 10:6 par. Matt 19:4, 8). The phrase ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως occurs in two additional passages (Mark 13:19; 2 Pet 3:4). Jesus describes Satan as “a murderer from the beginning” (John 8:44; cf. 1 John 3:8). If ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς is the correct reading in 2 Thess 2:13 (most mss. have ἀπαρχήν, “firstfruits”), Paul prob. means that believers have been chosen from eternity (an idea expressed differently in 1 Cor 2:7 [see αἰών G172] and Eph 1:4 [see καταβολή G2856]; cf. C. A. Wanamaker, The Epistles to the Thessalonians: A Commentary on the Greek Text [1990], 266). In John 1:1 the phrase ἐν ἀρχῇ, clearly alluding to Gen 1:1, implies something before time, i.e., not a beginning within time, but an absolute beginning, which can be affirmed only of God, of whom no temporal categories can be predicated. In a sim. way, Jesus is described as that which (or the one who) “was from the beginning” (1 John 1:1; 2:13–14) and as having no “beginning of days nor end of life” (Heb 7:3). The same idea is prob. expressed in Revelation when Jesus himself is called “the beginning” (ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κτίσεως in Rev 3:14 [but NIV, “the ruler of God’s creation”]; ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος in 21:6; 22:13), though some see here the notion of first cause, relating it to Col 1:18 (where Jesus is called both the “beginning” and the “firstborn from among the dead”; see πρωτότοκος G4758). Before moving on to the second sense of ἀρχή it would be useful to comment briefly on the adj. ἀρχαῖος, which occurs 11×. In two passages the term is used of the recent past (Acts 15:7; 21:16), but the other refs. are more significant. It is applied to Satan (“the ancient serpent,” Rev 12:9; 20:2), to the world of Noah’s time (2 Pet 2:5), and to the Israelite generations under the Mosaic law (Acts 15:21). The latter leads naturally to the use of the term as a subt., οἱ ἀρχαῖοι, “those of old,” to designate the people of OT times, whether the Israelites in general (Matt 5:21, 33) or the prophets in partic. (Luke 9:8, 19). Of special theological importance is Paul’s use of the term as a neut. pl. subst., τὰ ἀρχαῖα, to designate the sinful existence of human beings before coming to Christ; in contrast to that, the believer is described as a “new creation” (2 Cor 5:17; see καινός G2785 and κτίζω G3231). (b) The noun ἀρχή in the sense “ruler” is poss. applied to Christ in Rev 3:14 (so NIV, but NRSV, “origin”). It occurs with ref. to human beings in three passages (Jewish authorities in Luke 12:11; Roman authorities in 20:20; Titus 3:1; in all three passages ἀρχή is coupled with its synonym ἐξουσία G2026, “power, right, authority”). Elsewhere the noun—again in combination with ἐξουσία and comparable terms—is applied to angelic powers in a way reminiscent of contemporaneous Jewish writings, which depict the various facets of the natural world as under the control of angels. In contrast to such writings, however, the NT authors evidently saw no importance in working out the ranks or grades of angels, whether as individuals or as hierarchies. In this connection Col 1:16 is fundamental: the supernatural, heavenly beings and powers, of whom the ἀρχαί form part, have been created through Christ and for him. Accordingly, Christ’s reconciling act embraces the whole cosmos (1:20); at the present time too Christ is the head of every ruler and authority (2:10), for on the cross he disarmed them, robbing them of their might (2:15). It is a striking thought that the mystery (see μυστήριον G3696) of the call of the Gentiles to Christian faith should be made known to such principalities and powers in the heavenly places through the church (Eph 3:10). This mystery has a cosmic meaning that reaches out into the spiritual world. In Eph 6:12 the ἀρχαί are depicted as part of the evil world of spirits ruled by the devil against which Christians have to fight. In Rom 8:38 Paul assures his readers that these beings, though at work at the present time, cannot separate the believer from the love of God. And in the events of the end times, which bring about the establishment of God’s kingdom, Christ will destroy πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν (1 Cor 15:24). (The statement in Jude 6 that the angels did not keep τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀρχήν is interpreted by the KJV as a ref. to “their first state,” but modern scholarship understands it to mean that they abandoned their authoritative “office” or “position.”) 3 The term ἄρχων, “ruler,” is used 37× (32 of these in the Gospels and Acts). Only in Rev 1:5 is it used of Christ, described as “the firstborn from the dead, the ruler of the kings of the earth” (evidently an allusion to Ps 89:27 [88:28]). Otherwise the ἄρχοντες are human rulers, incl. those who lord it over the Gentiles (Matt 20:25; cf. Mark 10:42). According to Acts 4:25–27, the early Christians applied Ps 2:1–2 to the cooperation of two rulers, Herod Antipas and Pilate, at the crucifixion of Jesus. The term is used also of such officials as the synagogue authorities (e.g., Matt 9:18, 23; Luke 8:41; 12:58; 18:18), the lay members of the Sanhedrin (e.g., Luke 23:13, 35; 24:20; John 3:1), members of the highest Jewish authorities in general (John 7:26, 48; 12:42; Acts 3:17; 4:5, 8; 13:27), and the high priest (Acts 23:5). The man described as one of the rulers of the Pharisees (Luke 14:1) may have been “a ruler who belonged to the Pharisees” (RSV) or, more likely, “a prominent Pharisee” (NIV). The term is applied to the magistrates of Philippi, before whom Paul and Silas were dragged (Acts 16:19). In his teaching about the state Paul says that earthly rulers are not a cause of fear to those who do good (Rom 13:3; the second part of the verse uses ἐξουσία as a synonym). Acts 7:27 quotes a statement in Exod 2:14 regarding the Israelite who accused Moses of assuming illegitimate authority by pretending to be ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν ἐφʼ ἡμῶν (“ruler and judge over us”). Note in this connection such compounds as ἐθνάρχης G1617 (“ethnic leader,” 2 Cor 11:32), τετράρχης G5490 (“tetrarch,” Matt 14:1 et al.), etc. (for πατριάρχης G4256 see πατήρ G4252). In addition, the term ἄρχων is applied to evil spirits (see δαίμων G1230). The Pharisees accused Jesus of driving out demons by the power of the ruler (KJV and NIV, “prince”), meaning Beelzebul as the devil (Matt 9:34; 12:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15; see Βεελζεβούλ G1015, διαβάλλω G1330). In Eph 2:2 he is described as “the ruler of the kingdom of the air” (Eph 2:2; see ἀήρ G113). In the Gospel of John he is called “the ruler/prince of this world,” but Jesus predicts that this evil figure, who has no hold over him, will be driven out—indeed, he already stands condemned (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11). To be sure, even now the whole of the present world is under ἄρχοντες, but they are on their way to destruction (1 Cor 2:6); they crucified Christ because they did not understand God’s wisdom (2:8). 4 Finally, the noun ἀρχηγός occurs 4×, twice in Acts and twice in Hebrews, and is applied only to Jesus. The sense “ruler, leader, prince” is likely in Acts 5:31 (where Jesus is also called σωτήρ G5400, “savior”) and poss. in 3:15. In the latter passage, however, Peter makes the paradoxical statement that his hearers killed τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς (KJV, “the Prince of life”), and many believe that here the term is used with its orig. meaning of “beginning,” i.e., in a sense such as “founder, originator, source, author.” If so, the idea is that Jesus brings people to life (cf. John 1:4). The sense “author” seems esp. appropriate in Hebrews, which speaks of Christ as τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν, i.e., the one who brought about the salvation of human beings (Heb 2:10 [KJV, “captain”]; cf. αἴτιος G165 in 5:9). And because Christ has himself reached the goal, he is not only the author but also the perfecter of our faith (12:2). In both of these passages, some prefer the transl. “pioneer” (cf. NRSV and NIV 2011 [but NIV 1984, “author”]; for further discussion see E. Käsemann, The Wandering People of God [1984], 128–33 et passim). Bibliography TDNT 1:478–89; EDNT 1:161–64, 165–68; TDOT 13:268–72; NIDOTTE 3:1025–28. S. Levin, Ἀρχω and ἀρχή (unpublished diss., University of Chicago, 1950); G. B. Caird, Principalities and Powers (1956); A. Ehrhardt, The Beginning: A Study in the Greek Philosophical Approach to the Concept of Creation from Anaximander to St. John (1968); G. Miller, “Ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου: A New Look at 1 Corinthians 2:6–8,” JBL 91 (1972): 522–28; P.-G. Müller, Χριστὸς ἀρχηγός: Der religionsgeschichtliche und theologische Hintergrund einer neutestamentlichen Christusprädikation (1973); É. Samain, “La notion de ἀρχή dans l’oeuvre lucanienne,” in L’Évangile de Luc, ed. F. Neyrinck (1989), 209–38; W. Carr, “The Rulers of this Age: I Cor II.6–8,” NTS 23 (1976/77): 20–35; M. Riedel, “Arche und apeiron: Über das Grundwort Anaximanders,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 69 (1987): 1–17.

Moisés Silva, ed., New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014), 412–418. Here is BDAG: ἀρχή, ῆς, ἡ (Hom.+) ① the commencement of someth. as an action, process, or state of being, beginning, i.e. a point of time at the beginning of a duration. ⓐ gener. (opp. τέλος; cp. Diod S 16, 1, 1 ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς μέχρι τοῦ τέλους; Ael. Aristid. 30, 24 K.=10 p. 123 D.: ἐξ ἀ. εἰς τέλος; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 9, §36; Wsd 7:18) B 1:6; IEph 14:1; IMg 13:1; IRo 1:2, cp. vs. 1. W. gen. foll. (OGI 458, 10 life) ἡμέρας ὀγδόης B 15:8; ἡμερῶν (2 Km 14:26) Hb 7:3; τῶν σημείων first of the signs J 2:11 (ἀ. τοῦ ἡμετέρου δόγματος Orig., C. Cels. 2, 4, 20; cp. Isocr., Paneg. 10:38 Blass ἀλλʼ ἀρχὴν μὲν ταύτην ἐποιήσατο τ. εὐεργεσιῶν, τροφὴν τοῖς δεομένοις εὑρεῖν=but [Athens] made this the starting point of her benefactions: to provide basic needs for livelihood; Pr 8:22; Jos., Ant. 8, 229 ἀ. κακῶν); ὠδίνων Mt 24:8; Mk 13:8; κακῶν ISm 7:2. As the beginning, i.e. initial account, in a book (Ion of Chios [V b.c.] 392 Fgm. 24 Jac. [=Leurini no. 114] ἀρχὴ τοῦ λόγου; Polystrat. p. 28; Diod S 17, 1, 1 ἡ βύβλος τὴν ἀ. ἔσχε ἀπὸ …; Ael. Aristid. 23, 2 K.=42 p. 768 D.: ἐπʼ ἀρχῇ τοῦ συγγράμματος; Diog. L. 3, 37 ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς Πολιτείας; cp. Sb 7696, 53; 58 [250 a.d.]) ἀ. τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰ. Χ. Beginning of the gospel of J. C. Mk 1:1 (cp. Hos 1:2 ἀ. λόγου κυρίου πρὸς Ὡσηέ; s. RHarris, Exp. 8th ser., 1919, 113–19; 1920, 142–50; 334–50; FDaubanton, NThSt 2, 1919, 168–70; AvanVeldhuizen, ibid., 171–75; EEidem, Ingressen til Mkevangeliet: FBuhl Festschr. 1925, 35–49; NFreese, StKr 104, ’32, 429–38; AWikgren, JBL 61, ’42, 11–20 [ἀρχή=summary]; LKeck, NTS 12, ’65/66, 352–70). ἀ. τῆς ὑποστάσεως original commitment Hb 3:14. ἀρχὴν ἔχειν w. gen. of the inf. begin to be someth. IEph 3:1. ἀρχὴν λαμβάνειν begin (Polyb.; Aelian, VH 2, 28; 12, 53; Diog. L., Prooem. 3, 4; Sext. Emp., Phys. 1, 366; Philo, Mos. 1, 81) λαλεῖσθαι to be proclaimed at first Hb 2:3; cp. IEph 19:3. —W. prep. ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς from the beginning (Paus. 3, 18, 2; SIG 741, 20; UPZ 160, 15 [119 b.c.]; BGU 1141, 44; JosAs 23:4; Jos., Ant. 8, 350; 9, 30) J 6:64 v.l.; 15:27; 1J 2:7, 24; 3:11; 2J 5f; Ac 26:4; MPol 17:1; Hs 9, 11, 9; Dg 12:3. οἱ ἀπʼ ἀ. αὐτόπται those who fr. the beginning were eyewitnesses Lk 1:2. Also ἐξ ἀρχῆς (Diod. Sic. 18, 41, 7; Appian, Bell. Civ. 5, 45 [189]; SIG 547, 9; 634, 4; UPZ 185 II 5; PGen 7, 8; BGU 1118, 21; Jos., Bell. 7, 358) J 6:64; 16:4; 1 Cl 19:2; Pol 7:2; Dg 2:1. πάλιν ἐξ ἀ. (Ael. Aristid. 21, 10 K.=22 p. 443 D.; SIG 972, 174) again fr. the beginning (=afresh, anew; a common expr., Renehan ’75, 42) B 16:8. ἐν ἀρχῇ (Diod S 19, 110, 5; Palaeph. p. 2, 3; OGI 56, 57; PPetr II, 37, 2b verso, 4; PTebt 762, 9; POxy 1151, 15; BGU 954, 26; ViHab 14 [p. 87, 4 Sch.]) at the beginning, at first Ac 11:15; AcPlCor 2:4. ἐν ἀ. τοῦ εὐαγγελίου when the gospel was first preached Phil 4:15; sim., word for word, w. ref. to beg. of 1 Cor: 1 Cl 47:2. —τὴν ἀ. J 8:25, as nearly all the Gk. fathers understood it, is emphatically used adverbially=ὅλως at all (Plut., Mor. 115b; Dio Chrys. 10 [11], 12; 14 [31], 5; 133; Lucian, Eunuch. 6 al.; Ps.-Lucian, Salt. 3; POxy 472, 17 [c. 130 a.d.]; Philo, Spec. Leg. 3, 121; Jos., Ant. 1, 100; 15, 235 al.; as a rule in neg. clauses, but the negation can inhere in the sense: 48th letter of Apollonius of Tyana [Philostrat. I 356, 17]; Philo, Abrah. 116, Decal. 89; Ps.-Clem., Hom. 6, 11; without art. ApcSed 10:3; cp. Hs 2:5 cj. by W., endorsed by Joly; s. Field, Notes, 93f) τὴν ἀ. ὅτι καὶ λαλῶ ὑμῖν (how is it) that I even speak to you at all? But s. B-D-F §300, 2. More prob. the mng. is somewhat as follows: What I said to you from the first (so NT in Basic English; sim. REB et al.; cp. τὴν ἀρχήν ‘at the beginning’ Thu 2, 74, 2; s. also RFunk, HTR 51, ’58, 95–100; B-D-F §300, 2, but appeal to P66 is specious, s. EMiller, TZ 36, ’80, 261). ⓑ beginning, origin in the abs. sense (ἀ. τῆς τῶν πάντων ὑποστάσεως Orig. C. Cels. 6, 65, 4) ἀ. πάντων χαλεπῶν Pol 4:1; ἀ. κακῶν ISm 7:2 (cp. 1 Ti 6:10, which has ῥίζα for ἀ., and s. e.g. Ps 110:10; Sir 10:13); ἀ. κόσμου B 15:8; ἀ. πάντων PtK 2, p. 13, 21. ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς fr. the very beginning (Is 43:13; Wsd 9:8; 12:11; Sir 24:9 al.; PsSol 8:31; GrBar 17:2) Mt 19:4, 8; J 8:44; 1J 1:1 (of the Hist. beg. of Christianity: HWendt, D. Johannesbriefe u. d. joh. Christent. 1925, 31f; HWindisch, Hdb. ad loc.; difft. HConzelmann, RBultmann Festschr., ’54, 194–201); 3:8; 2 Th 2:13; ὁ ἀπʼ ἀ. 1J 2:13f; Dg 11:4; οἱ ἀπʼ ἀ. those at the very beginning, the first people 12:3; τὰ ἀπʼ ἀ. γενόμενα 1 Cl 31:1; ἀπʼ ἀ. κτίσεως Mk 10:6; 13:19; 2 Pt 3:4 (on ἀ. κτίσεως cp. En 15:9); ἀπʼ ἀ. κόσμου Mt 24:21. Also ἐξ ἀ. (X., Mem. 1, 4, 5; Ael. Aristid. 43, 9 K.=1 p. 3 D. [of the existence of Zeus]; TestAbr A 15 p. 96, 11 [Stone p. 40]; B 4 p. 109, 7 [St. p. 66]; Ath., R. 16, p. 67, 18; Philo, Aet. M. 42, Spec. Leg. 1, 300; Did., Gen. 50, 1) Dg 8:11; ἐν ἀ. in the beginning (Simplicius in Epict. p. 104, 2; Did., Gen. 29, 25 al.) J 1:1f; ἐν ἀ. τῆς κτίσεως B 15:3. κατʼ ἀρχάς in the beg. Hb 1:10 (Ps 101:26; cp. Hdt. 3, 153 et al.; Diod S; Plut.; Philo, Leg. All. 3, 92, Det. Pot. Insid. 118; Ps 118:152; Just., D. 2, 3). ② one with whom a process begins, beginning fig. , of pers. (Gen 49:3 Ῥουβὴν σὺ ἀρχὴ τέκνων μου; Dt 21:17): of Christ Col 1:18. W. τέλος of God or Christ Rv 1:8 v.l.; 21:6; 22:13 (Hymn to Selene 35 ἀ. καὶ τέλος εἶ: Orphica p. 294, likew. PGM 4, 2836; 13, 362; 687; Philo, Plant. 93; Jos., Ant. 8, 280; others in Rtzst., Poim. 270ff and cp. SIG 1125, 7–11 Αἰών, … ἀρχὴν μεσότητα τέλος οὐκ ἔχων, expressed from the perspective of historical beginning). ③ the first cause, the beginning (philos. t.t. ODittrich, D. Systeme d. Moral I 1923, 360a, 369a;—Ael. Aristid. 43, 9 K.=1 p. 3 D.: ἀρχὴ ἁπάντων Ζεύς τε καὶ ἐκ Διὸς πάντα; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 190 God as ἀρχὴ κ. μέσα κ. τέλος τῶν πάντων [contrast SIG 1125, 10f]) of Christ ἡ ἀ. τῆς κτίσεως Rv 3:14; but the mng. beginning=‘first created’ is linguistically probable (s. above 1b and Job 40:19; also CBurney, Christ as the Ἀρχή of Creation: JTS 27, 1926, 160–77). [ὁ γὰ]ρ π̣̄ρ̣̄ (=πατὴρ) [ἀρ]|χή ἐ[σ‌]τ̣[ιν τῶν μ]ελλόν|των for the Father is the source of all who are to come into being in contrast to the προπάτωρ, who is without a beginning Ox 1081, 38f (SJCh 91, 1 ἀρχή; on the context, s. WTill, TU 60/5, ’55 p. 57). ④ a point at which two surfaces or lines meet, corner (from the perspective of an observer the object appears to begin at that point), pl. corners of a sheet Ac 10:11; 11:5 (cp. Hdt. 4, 60; Diod S 1, 35, 10). ⑤ a basis for further understanding, beginning τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀ. elementary principles Hb 5:12 (perh. w. an element of gentle satire: ‘the discrete items or ABC’s that compose the very beginning [of divine instructions]’; cp. MKiley, SBLSP 25, ’86, 236–45, esp. 239f). ὁ τῆς ἀ. τοῦ Χ. λόγος elementary Christian teaching 6:1. ⑥ an authority figure who initiates activity or process, ruler, authority (Aeschyl., Thu. et al.; ins; pap, e.g. PHal 1, 226 μαρτυρείτω ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ δικαστηρίῳ; Gen 40:13, 21; 41:13; 2 Macc 4:10, 50 al., s. Magie 26; so as a loanw. in rabb. ἀ. = νόμιμος ἐπιστασία Did., Gen. 60, 9) w. ἐξουσία Lk 20:20; pl. (Oenomaus in Eus., PE 6, 7, 26 ἀρχαὶ κ. ἐξουσίαι; 4 Macc 8:7; Jos., Ant. 4, 220) Lk 12:11; Tit 3:1; MPol 10:2 (αἱ ἀρχαί can also be the officials as persons, as those who took part in the funeral procession of Sulla: Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 106 §497.—The same mng. 2, 106 §442; 2, 118 §498 al. Likewise Diod S 34+35 Fgm. 2, 31). —Also of angelic or transcendent powers, since they were thought of as having a political organization (Damascius, Princ. 96 R.) Ro 8:38; 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Col 1:16; 2:10, 15; AcPl Ha 1, 7. Cp. TestJob 49, 2; Just., D. 120, 6 end. ⑦ the sphere of one’s official activity, rule, office (Diod S 3, 53, 1; Appian, Bell. Civ. 1, 13 §57; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 177, Ant. 19, 273), or better domain, sphere of influence (Diod S 17, 24, 2; Appian, Syr. 23 §111; Arrian, Anab. 6, 29, 1; Polyaen. 8:55; Procop. Soph., Ep. 139) of angels Jd 6. Papias (4 v.l. for ἄρχω). —S. the lit. on ἄγγελος and HSchlier, Mächte u. Gewalten im NT: ThBl 9, 1930, 289–97. —144–50 (‘Archai’). EDNT. DELG s.v. ἄρχω D. M-M. TW. Sv.
William Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 137–138.
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