Finding a Hebrew source/root for a word in Greek

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Joe W | Forum Activity | Posted: Mon, Mar 9 2020 10:50 PM

Is it possible to search for a Hebrew root or source for a word that's found only in the Greek New Testament?

For instance.  Only the Greek word for the town of Nazareth is in the Bible.  But Nazareth is not derived from Greek.  It was an Aramaic or Hebrew name.  I'm trying to find its source.  It just so happens that scholars have identified it source/root as נֵ֖צֶר - ne'ser or "branch".  But I wanted to know if this was possible to track down had I not known of this scholarly information.

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Fr Devin Roza | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Mar 11 2020 1:20 PM

One good way to investigate this type of question is by using Theological / Exegetical Dictionaries.

Here is the entry from the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis, for example:

Ναζαρηνός G3716 (Nazarēnos) and Ναζωραῖος G3717 (Nazōraios), Nazarene, from Nazareth

NT Both of these gentilics occur only in the NT and in subsequent Christian writers, but they evidently derive from a Semitic term (perhaps related to Heb. נָזִיר H5687, “dedicated, withheld”). Ναζωραῖος is the more common form, occurring 13× (2× in Matthew, 1× in Luke, 3× in John, and 7× in Acts), while Ναζαρηνός is found 6× (these figures are based on NA27/28; there are a few textual variants). The latter is characteristic of Mark, who uses it 4× (Mark 1:24; 10:47 [here many mss., incl. א and A, have Ναζωραῖος]; 14:67; 16:6; otherwise only in Luke 4:34 [prob. depending on Mark] and 24:19 [where many mss., incl. A, have Ναζωραῖος]).
The NT writers undoubtedly understood the terms as designations for a native of Nazareth (Gk. Ναζαρέθ G3715, with various alternate spellings, incl. Ναζαρά G3711), evidently an insignificant village of Galilee, known only because of Jesus’ association with it (Nazareth would have been overshadowed by Sepphoris, a much larger city only c. 4 mi. NNW of it). Matthew explicitly links the term Ναζωραῖος with the fact that Joseph settled his family there after the flight to Egypt (Matt 2:23; more on this verse below); elsewhere he uses the term in parallel with Γαλιλαῖος G1134, “Galilean” (26:69, 71). The town is not mentioned in the OT or other Jewish lit., and in the past some thought that Nazareth was a pure invention because a place name was necessary to correspond to “Nazarene” in the Jesus tradition. Such a view can no longer be entertained. The name has appeared as נצרת in a Jewish inscription in Caesarea, dated from the period after Hadrian, so that there is at last a piece of early evidence for the existence of the place as a Jewish settlement (M. Avi-Yonah, “A List of Priestly Courses from Caesarea,” IEJ 12 [1962]: 137–39). And there is no serious question that the Nazareth of the NT is the modern town of en-Naṣira.
Since there were many bearers of the name Jesus in NT times, it was necessary to distinguish among them by means of some additional name. Thus in the Gospels Jesus is sometimes identified as the son of Joseph (Luke 3:23; 4:22; John 1:45; 6:42; in Mark 6:3 as the son of Mary, evidently after the death of Joseph). Often a person’s native town or region served this purpose (e.g., Mary Magdalene, Joseph of Arimathea, Saul of Tarsus). The designation of Jesus as Nazarene V 3, p 369 achieved lasting significance, and even his followers were referred to as Nazarenes (Acts 24:5). In rabb. tradition and still today in Modern Hebrew, the term for “Christians” is נוֹצְרִים. There have been sim. terms for Christians elsewhere in the Near East from ancient times on. Nevertheless, they do not necessarily rest on the direct influence of Jewish or Jewish Christian tradition, but result from the fact that the Syriac-speaking church took over Ναζωραῖος from NT Gk. as the loanword Nāṣārā’ and passed it on to its non-Christian environment.
Although in the NT both Gk. forms have the same referent (“a person from Nazareth”), it is uncertain whether Ναζωραῖος orig. had this meaning. Moreover, one would expect the Heb./Aram. consonant ṣ to be transliterated with the Gk. letter σ (= s), not with ζ (= z), though this difficulty is not insuperable (G. Dalman, Grammatik des jüdisch-palästinischen Aramäisch [1905], 152n., speculates that this anomaly resulted from the nearby consonantal sounds n and r; see also sim. exx. from the LXX and Jos. listed by H. H. Schaeder in TDNT 4:879). It is most likely that both forms derive from Heb./Aram. נצרת, the only difference being that Ναζαρηνός is a pure Gk. formation, whereas Ναζωραῖος perhaps reflects an additional Aram. element that expresses belonging (cf. R. Stiehl, “Aramäisch als Weltsprache,” in Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte der Alten Welt, ed., E. C. Welskopf [1964], 1:74).
The more serious problem arises from Matt 2:23, which states that Joseph “went and lived in a town called Nazareth. So was fulfilled what was said through the prophets, that he would be called a Nazarene.” Much controversy surrounds this statement, since the OT nowhere uses the term Nazarene. Was Matthew making a play on words, having in mind one or more Heb. terms (e.g., נֵצֶר H5916, “branch, shoot,” cf. Isa. 11:1; נָצַר H5915, “to keep, protect,” cf. 42:6 and 49:8; נָזִיר H5687, “dedicated,” cf. Judg 13:5 et al.)? Or was he rather alluding to the insignificance and lowly reputation of Nazareth in the context of OT passages that depict the Messiah as despised (e.g., Ps 22:6–8 [LXX 21:5–7]; Isa 53:2–3)?
The latter possibility may be supported by the fact that the contexts where both forms are used seem to have undertones of dissociation or even contempt. The Gospel of John in partic. brings out this element. Already in the first chapter the book reports Nathanael’s rhetorical question to Philip, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” (John 1:46 NRSV). John goes on to use the term “Nazarene” in his account of Jesus’ arrest (18:4–7) and then again when he tells us that the term was inscribed on the cross on the initiative of the Roman procurator (19:19). Here finally, so to speak, the reader’s attention is once again drawn to the fact that Jesus’ origins in a place without status or prestige in the surrounding world formed a glaring contrast to the claim with which he had appeared before them.

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Mar 11 2020 4:27 PM

Thank you Father!

I was trying to figure out how to use the theological dictionary from within the program itself when I highlight/click on the word Nazareth.  That's where I was struggling.  I took a screenshot below.  Do I find the info you found through this process?  Or must I open a dictionary of theology/exegesis separately and input the word?

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Steve Maling | Forum Activity | Replied: Wed, Mar 11 2020 5:27 PM

Another good starting point is The Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament. Look for the "Heb. equiv. fr. LXX" immediately following the list of "Cognate words" at the top of entries with equivalents in the Septuagint. You can search for this title on the Verbum/FaithLife site.

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Fr Devin Roza | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 12 2020 2:19 AM

JoeW:

Thank you Father!

I was trying to figure out how to use the theological dictionary from within the program itself when I highlight/click on the word Nazareth.  That's where I was struggling.  I took a screenshot below.  Do I find the info you found through this process?  Or must I open a dictionary of theology/exegesis separately and input the word?

On the left hand side, you should select the Lemma instead of the Manuscript form. It's immediately below what you have selected in the image, and has the circle icon to the left of it. 

Then, if you have your theological / exegetical dictionary "prioritized" high enough, it will appear in the "Lookup" section as one of the options, and you can open it directly.

As well, if you select the lemma on the left hand side of the dropdown you'll be able to run a Bible Word Study, and in the "Lemma" section of the BWS you'll see all your lexicons, including the theological / exegetical ones. 

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David Ames | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 12 2020 4:38 AM

JoeW:

Is it possible to search for a Hebrew root or source for a word that's found only in the Greek New Testament?

Moving back to the Old Testament Greek [LXX] Remember that the Hebrew that the LXX was translated from is not exactly the same as the Hebrew  in our current Hebrew Old Testaments.  [There seem to have been 'differences' in the 420 years between them - that is a time period equal to the difference in time between today and the printing of the Original DR version in Old English]

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 12 2020 8:58 AM

>>Then, if you have your theological / exegetical dictionary "prioritized" high enough, it will appear in the "Lookup" section as one of the options, and you can open it directly.

As well, if you select the lemma on the left hand side of the dropdown you'll be able to run a Bible Word Study, and in the "Lemma" section of the BWS you'll see all your lexicons, including the theological / exegetical ones. <<

Thank you.

How do you “prioritize” a resource?  I’ve only had the program for less than 3 weeks and I’m not sure how to find a tutorial about this particular process (didn’t know prioritizing is even a thing)

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Graham Criddle | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 12 2020 9:38 AM

JoeW:
How do you “prioritize” a resource?  I’ve only had the program for less than 3 weeks and I’m not sure how to find a tutorial about this particular process (didn’t know prioritizing is even a thing)

https://support.logos.com/hc/en-us/articles/360019683652-Prioritize-Resources should get you started - but please post back if it still doesn't make sense!

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Fr Devin Roza | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 12 2020 12:01 PM

JoeW:

I’ve only had the program for less than 3 weeks and I’m not sure how to find a tutorial about this particular process (didn’t know prioritizing is even a thing)

If you have a Verbum base package, you may have the Verbum 360 training videos in your library. That might be a good place to start, as it gives a pretty complete overview of the software. And the website Graham recommended has lots of good introductory videos and training as well!

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 11:27 AM

Fr Devin Roza:

JoeW:

I’ve only had the program for less than 3 weeks and I’m not sure how to find a tutorial about this particular process (didn’t know prioritizing is even a thing)

If you have a Verbum base package, you may have the Verbum 360 training videos in your library. That might be a good place to start, as it gives a pretty complete overview of the software. And the website Graham recommended has lots of good introductory videos and training as well!

Fr. Roza,

As I'm going thru the 360 videos, I discovered I may have a missing piece in my library, but I wanted to first confirm with you if I'm doing something incorrectly.  

In the very beginning of the video lesson on "Exegetical Guide", as you're looking up Jn 4:1-26, your screen shows "Textual Variants" with subheadings of "Textual Commentaries", "Apparatuses", "Editions" and so on.  

Does every Verbum package include all of these or does that vary by library content?  I'm asking because "Textual Commentaries" does not appear as one of my subheadings.  I'm guessing that it only appears if I have actual textual commentaries included in my library or should the subheading appear and merely show as empty?

Thanks,

Joe

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Fr Devin Roza | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 11:58 AM

They vary by library.

Plus, the Verbum 360 videos were done with the Verbum 7 libraries in mind, not the Verbum 8 libraries, so there may be some books that are missing, regardless of the Verbum 8 library you own. 

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 12:38 PM

Fr Devin Roza:

They vary by library.

Plus, the Verbum 360 videos were done with the Verbum 7 libraries in mind, not the Verbum 8 libraries, so there may be some books that are missing, regardless of the Verbum 8 library you own. 

That's what it was Father.  I just purchased the Lexham Textual Notes and the subheading of "Textual Commentaries" came up, with the Lexham Notes under it.

Have you experienced the "disappearance" of resources from your Library?  I know I own several reverse interlinears.  Yet, not a single one can be found in my Library.  My Library has been updated & sync'd.  Any suggestions?

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Graham Criddle | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 1:12 PM

JoeW:
Have you experienced the "disappearance" of resources from your Library?  I know I own several reverse interlinears.  Yet, not a single one can be found in my Library.  My Library has been updated & sync'd.  Any suggestions?

Reverse Interlinears do not appear in the Library

To check you have them, try to access them in the associated Bibles

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 1:20 PM

Graham Criddle:

JoeW:
Have you experienced the "disappearance" of resources from your Library?  I know I own several reverse interlinears.  Yet, not a single one can be found in my Library.  My Library has been updated & sync'd.  Any suggestions?

Reverse Interlinears do not appear in the Library

To check you have them, try to access them in the associated Bibles

Thank you Graham.  So, in a sense, they're "embedded" in tools such as the Information panel?  That would be a way to access them?

Is there a way to open the reverse interlinear to view it as you would an ordinary interlinear?  (IOW, what if you want to see an entire chapter in the Greek with the transliteration?)

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Graham Criddle | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 1:41 PM

JoeW:
Is there a way to open the reverse interlinear to view it as you would an ordinary interlinear?  (IOW, what if you want to see an entire chapter in the Greek with the transliteration

Try clicking the Interlinear button in a resource that has one - such as ESV.

With the Inline Interlinear you get a range of different information sets displayed under the English translation.

https://support.logos.com/hc/en-us/articles/360016304852-Interlinears has more details.

Does that give you what you are looking for?

Posts 31
Joe W | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 1:50 PM

Graham Criddle:

JoeW:
Is there a way to open the reverse interlinear to view it as you would an ordinary interlinear?  (IOW, what if you want to see an entire chapter in the Greek with the transliteration

Try clicking the Interlinear button in a resource that has one - such as ESV.

With the Inline Interlinear you get a range of different information sets displayed under the English translation.

https://support.logos.com/hc/en-us/articles/360016304852-Interlinears has more details.

Does that give you what you are looking for?

Perfect!  Thanks again Graham!

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MJ. Smith | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Apr 18 2020 2:00 PM

JoeW:
Have you experienced the "disappearance" of resources from your Library?  I know I own several reverse interlinears.  Yet, not a single one can be found in my Library.  My Library has been updated & sync'd.  Any suggestions?

Reverse interlinears are not resources but rather datasets so they don't appear in the library. However, if you open the information panel for a Bible for which you own the reverse interlinear, it will show towards the bottom.

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