Ceslas Spicq's Commentary on Hebrews is set to be translated

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Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Posted: Thu, Mar 8 2012 1:19 PM

I have been aching to share this with the world, but we here at Logos have decided it was high time for Ceslas Spicq's L’Épitre aux Hébreux (The Epistle to the Hebrews) to be translated and introduced to the world. Like Vos, we are in the beginning stages of getting this work done, so go and Pre-Pub your copy now.

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Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 8 2012 1:33 PM

Thanks! I just pre-ordered it.

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Keep Smiling 4 Jesus :) | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 8 2012 2:23 PM

Wonder about interlinear format ? for French and English readers ?

Keep Smiling Smile

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Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 8 2012 3:00 PM

Keep Smiling 4 Jesus :):

Wonder about interlinear format ? for French and English readers ?

Keep Smiling Smile

The French edition may be something to pursue if the English one does well.

Cliff

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NB.Mick | Forum Activity | Replied: Thu, Mar 8 2012 5:01 PM

Clifford Kvidahl:

I have been aching to share this with the world, but we here at Logos have decided it was high time for Ceslas Spicq's L’Épitre aux Hébreux (The Epistle to the Hebrews) to be translated and introduced to the world. Like Vos, we are in the beginning stages of getting this work done, so go and Pre-Pub your copy now.

Thanks a lot! Seems to need some more pre-orders, though...

Running Logos 9 latest (beta) version on Win 10

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Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 5:21 PM

Just giving this a bump.

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Keep Smiling 4 Jesus :) | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 5:32 PM

Appears => http://www.logos.com/product/17734/the-epistle-to-the-hebrews now has 50 % progress.

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Jack Caviness | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 5:32 PM

Clifford Kvidahl:

Just giving this a bump.

Ordered today

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Jacob Hantla | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 5:42 PM

Clifford Kvidahl:

Keep Smiling 4 Jesus :):

Wonder about interlinear format ? for French and English readers ?

Keep Smiling Smile

The French edition may be something to pursue if the English one does well.

Cliff

If you guys are doing the translation, an interlinear (at least on the sentence level) would be great...not necessary but a nice touch. I wouldn't personally benefit, but it would be very nice I'm sure for the bilingual and the scholar among us

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Evan Boardman | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 8:27 PM

I've heard of Vos, but I've never heard of this guy.

 

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Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 12 2012 8:32 PM

Evan Boardman:

I've heard of Vos, but I've never heard of this guy.

Evan,

Ceslas Spicq was Catholic scholar and NT exegete. He is the author of a number of important works, most of which have not been translated into English, which is a shame. He is better known among English readers for his 3 vol lexicon.

Cliff

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Fabrice | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 5:11 AM

It's funny because we can't even find it in French and now it will be available in english! So this originally french work will now be more accessible for english speaking people than french speakers. hehe Don't miss this tremendous work and for that Logos price, it's unbeatable.

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Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 5:44 AM

Evan Boardman:

I've heard of Vos, but I've never heard of this guy.

Here is an example of Spicq from his Theological Lexicon of the NT:

δίκαιος, δικαιοσύνη, δικαιόω, δικαίωμα, δικαίωσις, δικαστής, δίκη

dikaios, conforming to law or custom, right, virtuous; dikaiosynē, justice, righteousness; dikaioō, to justify, pronounce just; dikaiōma, justification, righteousness, righteous decree, just requirement; dikaiōsis, justification; dikastēs, judge; dikē, custom, justice, punishment

→see also λάθρα

dikaios, S 1342; TDNT 2.174–178, 224–225; EDNT 1.324–325; NIDNTT 3.352–355, 358, 360–363, 365–370; MM 162; L&N 34.47, 66.5, 88.12; BDF §263(a, b); BAGD 195–196 | dikaiosynē, S 1343; TDNT 2.174–178, 192–210; EDNT 1.325–330; NIDNTT 3.352–354, 358, 360–365, 369–372; MM 162; L&N 34.46, 53.4, 57.111, 88.13; BDF §§163, 219(4), 275(3); BAGD 196–197 | dikaioō, S 1344; TDNT 2.174–178, 211–219; EDNT 1.330–334; NIDNTT 3.352, 354–355, 358, 360–363, 365, 369–370, 372; MM 162–163; L&N 34.46, 36.22, 37.138, 56.34, 88.16; BDF §§148(4), 195(1e); BAGD 197–198 | dikaiōma, S 1345; TDNT 2.174–178, 219–223; EDNT 1.334–335; NIDNTT 3.352, 354, 361–363, 365, 371–372; MM 163; L&N 33.334, 56.34, 88.14; BAGD 198 | dikaiōsis, S 1347; TDNT 2.174–178, 223–224; EDNT 1.335; NIDNTT 3.352, 354, 363, 371–372; L&N 34.46, 56.34; BAGD 198 | dikastēs, S 1348; EDNT 1.336; MM 163; L&N 56.28; BAGD 198 | dikē, S 1349; TDNT 2.174–182; EDNT 1.336; NIDNTT 3.92–93, 96; MM 163; L&N 12.27, 38.8; BAGD 198; ND 6.90

I. Dikē.—It is generally agreed that dikē, the basic term in this group, is related to deiknymi, “show, indicate.”1 Thus its root meaning would be “that which is indicated, is in usage, is customary,”2 and it is from this starting point that it ends up meaning “justice.” The first appearance of this meaning is as a mythical divine being: “There is a virgin, Dike, daughter of Zeus, honored and revered by the gods, inhabitants of Olympia,” who denounces the unjust deeds of humans before her father and calls for their punishment.3 But already in Homer, dikē refers to a person’s due or share, what he has a right to (Il. 19.180; Od. 24.255) and also to just actions toward someone else (Od. 14.84), giving another person his due (Il. 23.542; Od. 9.215). Aristotle emphasizes mutuality and reciprocity (Eth. Nic. 5.7.1131b).

Meaning “right” (Homer, Il. 16.388; Hesiod, Op. 219) and “justice” (Josephus, War 5.2), dikē is introduced in legal language, where it refers sometimes to a trial, a legal decision,4 sometimes to the result of a trial, namely, the execution of sentence, the penalty or punishment:5 “pursued by your justice” (Wis 11:20); “the slave and the master were stricken with the same punishment” (Wis 18:11). This latter meaning predominates in the lxx: “the avenging sword of vengeance” (Lev 26:25; cf. Exod 21:20); “punishment by fire” (Amos 7:14; cf. 2 Macc 8:11, 13); “the punishment reserved for sinners.”6 The nt knows only this meaning: when St. Paul was bitten by the snake after escaping the shipwreck, the Maltese concluded, “Surely this man is a murderer, since after he has been saved from the sea, Dike (the avenging goddess) does not allow him to live” (Acts 28:4); those who do not obey the gospel “will in punishment suffer eternal loss” (2 Thess 1:9); Sodom and Gomorrah have “suffered the punishment (the consequence of just judgment) of eternal fire” (Jude 7).

II. Dikaios.—This adjective modifies persons who conform to custom or law (Homer, Od. 6.120) and things that are “normal,” i.e., that are as they ought to be (a just judgment, Deut 16:18; John 5:30; Josephus, Ant. 9.4; just ways arrive at their goal, Rev 15:3; Josephus, Ant. 13.290). Aristotle defines the dikaios as “one who conforms to the law (nomimos) and is equal (isos).”7 But all of Greek literature includes in the obligations of the just not only their responsibilities toward humans8 but also toward the gods; the just are so only if they are pious.9 So if the just person has a political “virtue,” it is conceived as the virtue of establishing order and harmony among men (Plato, Resp. 4.443 c–e). To dikaion is an innate idea that belongs to human nature, like the beautiful, the good, and the fitting.10 Under Stoic influence, Philo makes it a cardinal virtue, but one whose role goes far beyond the legal realm.11 Depending on the lxx, Josephus has a religious concept of the just person, who is not only faithful to divine commands,12 but a person of honesty, rectitude,13 keeping to his place and acting according to the divine will. Thus it is the faithful Jew who is just (Ant. 9.33), “all the Jews among the Hebrews” (10.38; cf. 14.172). They illustrate the conception of Theognis (“All the virtues are included in justice. If you are just, you are a good person” (1.147–148) or of Isocrates (the best person is the just person, Nic. 20; cf. Hel. 1). “No sin is the result of justice” (Philo, Quest. Gen. 4.64); “Just ways do not know how to do wrong” (dikaios adikein ouk epistatai trophos, Menander, in Stobaeus, Ecl. 9.8, vol. 3, p. 438; T. Gad 5.3).

The lxx affirms and reaffirms that God is “just and upright” (Deut 32:4; Ps 11:7); a “just judge” (Jer 12:1; Ps 7:12; Tob 3:2), acting justly (Gen 18:25; Judg 5:11; Ps 145:17), rewarding or punishing with justice (Ps 62:13); but this justice is linked with goodness: “Yahweh is merciful and just; our God is compassionate” (Ps 116:5). The Messiah is described as just, not only because he carries out God’s will, but because he possesses this attribute, which is proper to good sovereigns, and because he establishes justice on earth: “I will raise up from David a just seed.… He will practice judgment and justice in the land.… He will be called ‘Yahweh-our-Justice.”14 As for the just person in the ot, he is first of all innocent, in contrast to the impious transgressor (Exod 23:6–8; Ezek 23:45); he is “the one who does the will of the Lord” (Sir 16:3). So he is essentially a religious and perfect person (Gen 6:9), especially impartial (Deut 16:19) and generous (2 Kgs 10:9; 1 Sam 24:18). Not only is he “just before God” (Gen 7:1), he is also a “son of God” (Wis 2:18), and “the souls of the just are in God’s hands” (Wis 3:1; 5:1, 15). Even when persecuted (Wis 2:10–18), the just are beloved of God (Ps 146:7) and living (Isa 26:2), and they will be exalted: “Glory to the just!”15

In the nt, several usages of dikaios match secular usage,16 especially the neuter to dikaion.17 The master of the vineyard promises the workers that he will give “whatever is just” (ho ean ē dikaion) after the work is done (Matt 20:4). Each one can judge what is right (krinein to dikaion, Luke 12:57). Masters must give their slaves what is just and equitable (to dikaion kai tēn isotēta, Col 4:1), and St. Peter considers it his responsibility (literally, considers it just, dikaion hēgeomai) to keep Christians watchful.18 But our authors sometimes feel the need to Christianize this obligation, which has its source in God; Peter and John ask their judges “if it is just in God’s sight (ei dikaion estin enōpion tou theou) to obey you rather than God.”19 Nevertheless, in the great majority of cases, dikaios retains its lxx meaning. First of all, in describing God as just in carrying out his promises of salvation, “God shows his justice … so that he may be just himself (eis to einai auton dikaion) and also make just those who have believed in Jesus.”20 God is always just in his judgments, punishing the godless and rewarding the faithful.21 It follows that the law, which comes from God, expresses his will, and binds people to God and their neighbor, “is holy, and the commandment is holy, just, and good” (hagia kai dikaia kai agathē, Rom 7:12). This justice clearly goes beyond the realm of the legal or even the equitable; it is almost synonymous with perfection or integrity! Taking up the messianic designation in Isa 53:11; Jer 23:5, St. Peter says to the Sanhedrin, “You disowned the Holy and Just One” (ton hagion kai dikaion).22 Again, the modifier dikaios is used for a person of perfect rectitude, one who carries out the will of God;23 a person set apart, contrasted with the breaker of the law.24 This person is promised the highest reward: the resurrection of the just (anastasis tōn dikaiōn, Luke 14:14; cf. Acts 24:15). Dikaios became a term for a Christian, first of all because Christians are purified from sin (Matt 13:43, 49) and acceptable to God (Jas 5:6); they are irreproachable, and their prayers are very powerful (Jas 5:16; 1 Pet 3:12); they are also merciful (Matt 25:37, 46). If they are “saved with difficulty” (1 Pet 4:18; a quotation from Prov 11:31) through many trials, they are sure of receiving “the recompense of the just” (Matt 10:41) and reaching God (Heb 12:23).

St. Paul enriched this ot idea of justice/righteouness. Whereas Ps 14:1 says, “There is no just person, not even one” (quoted Rom 3:10; cf. Eccl 7:20), the apostle adds on the one hand that it is not mere knowledge of the law that makes a person just, but putting it into practice, actualizing it in works.25 And on the other hand he declares that a new form of justice/righteousness has appeared, no longer a legal or sacrificial justice, nor even moral, but a religious and internal righteousness. Whereas Adam’s transgression brought a death sentence for all humans (Rom 5:18), Christ instituted (kathistēmi) a dispensation of justifying, life-giving grace: “Through one person’s obedience, all will be constituted just” (dikaioi katastathēsontai hoi polloi, Rom 5:19); it is no longer Adam’s sin that is inherited, but Christ’s righteousness. Thus Christ establishes a new humanity of just people, antithetical to sinful humanity.26 To be clothed with this righteousness, it is enough to believe: “The just will live by faith.”27 It is the gift or the sharing of God’s justice/righteousness that makes the believer just, not so much on the moral plane of virtues as in the theological order: the dikaios is a new creation (2 Cor 5:17), enters into communion with God, is a new being. So it is indeed faith that is the principle of the religious life (Rom 3:26; Gal 3:7–9) and justification that gives life (dikaiōsis zōēs, Rom 5:18; to pneuma zōē dia dikaiosynēn, 8:10). This dynamic and life-giving principle indwells the Christian, who, led by the Holy Spirit (Gal 5:18)—whose role is to lead the children of God (Rom 8:14)—and by faith (Gal 3:11), knows how to discern between good and evil and wants what God wants, just as a child instinctively knows its father’s desires and seeks to please him. The law, on the other hand, was established to set rules for sinners and to punish them. Thus “the law was instituted not for the just (those justified by Christ) but for the lawless and rebellious, the godless and sinful.”28

III. Dikaiosynē.—This substantive, unknown in Homer and Hesiod, first appears in Herodotus (1.96), and in the Koine it substituted more and more for dikē. Certainly it retains a legal sense,29 but its meaning is considerably broadened. Not only is it a virtue,30 notably in sovereigns, lawmakers, and leaders,31 that sums up all other virtues;32 it seems to consist most of all in properly fulfilling one’s role in society, at least beginning with Plato (Phd. 82 a: demotikē kai politikē aretē). Little by little, it becomes a synonym of perfection33 and an attribute of every honest person,34 of good comportment (Josephus, Ant. 3.67; 4.223; 19.154). Hence its association with semnos (Isocrates, Panath. 249; Josephus, War 4.319), referring to a sort of nobility or at least dignity (Josephus, Ant. 11.217; 12.160). Dikaiosynē, which implies measure and moderation, goes along with leniency (praos, Dio Cassius 49.20) and epieikeia (Josephus, Ant. 14.13); so it is inclined to forgive (3 Macc 7:6–7; I.Sard. 20.1–6). In addition, it is with increasing frequency characterized as being ready to serve35 and dedicated to serving everyone; doctors who devote them-selves to the service of all are praised for their dikaiosynē.36 Finally, dikaiosynē is linked with beneficence and philanthropy. In the second century bc, Theodorus is praised “for his beneficence and his justice toward all” (euergesias heneken kai dikaiosynēs tēs pros hapantas, SB 9974, 7), as is Callicles,37 and Musonius defines virtue thus: “Virtue (aretē) is brotherly love and goodness and dikaiosynē and beneficence” (frag. 14, ed. C. E. Lutz, p. 92, 32; frag. 16, p. 104, 33; frag. 17, p. 108, 2; frag. 38, p. 136, 3; cf. frag. 11, p. 82, 33; frag. 13 b, p. 90, 13; cf. Philo, Quest. Gen. 4.66). Dikaiosynē had all of these characteristics when personified, honored, and even divinied,38 worshiped,39 given altars.40

In the lxx, dikaiosynē translates the Hebrew eḏāqâh, the exact meaning of which is not discoverable but which seems to express fullness and abundance.41 The justice/righteousness of God, which in itself is indefinable, is always expressed in his relations with the world; it is a relational concept, one that has to do with activities. The believer confesses that on Yahweh’s side, all is perfect: “his work is perfect, all his ways are justice” (Deut 32:4); “Justice belongs to the Lord our God” (Bar 1:15; 2:6; Ezra 9:15); “You are just with regard to all that has happened to us.”42 On rare occasions this legislative and retributive divine justice is purely judicial;43 it is the attribute of an all-powerful sovereign: “You sit enthroned as a just judge” (Ps 9:5; 51:16; 96:13; 111:3; 129:3). He brings to pass exactly what he has announced,44 but above all, his actions, which are so perfectly just, are always accompanied by goodness and mercy: “Yahweh will do justice to his people and will take pity on his servants” (Deut 32:36; Ps 88:13; 103:17; 116:5; Jer 9:23). He betroths himself to his people in justice, grace, and affection (Hos 2:21); “your great goodness will be remembered and your justice will be proclaimed” (Ps 145:7, 17). The “justices” of Yahweh are his divine favors (Judg 5:11; 1 Sam 12:6 ff.; Mic 6:3), a fullness of gifts (Deut 33:21; Amos 5:24), help (Isa 41:10—“I have upheld you by the right hand of my justice”; 42:6),45 and above all, salvation (“a righteous God and Savior; there is none but me,” Isa 45:21; 46:13); “my salvation will soon come, and my justice will appear”;46 “In your justice deliver me, free me, … save me” (Ps 71:2). Thus the Messiah, raised up by God’s justice and under his protection (Zech 9:9), will execute righteousness and justice (Isa 9:6; 11:4 ff.; 32:1). He is the “Just One” who is to come (Jer 23:5) and will be called “Yahweh our Justice” (Jer 32:15).

Human justice/righteousness, which is contrasted with iniquity (anomia, Isa 5:7), is defined in relation to God (Zech 8:8, cf. Wis 5:6) and concretely as faithfulness to the law,47 the proof of total dependence on and submission to the Lord, guaranteeing innocence (Ps 18:21, 25) and perfection (Ps 15:1 ff.; 24:3). It is also a cardinal virtue, however (Wis 8:7) and a correct attitude in all human relationships, including, for example, the giving of alms.48 There are constant appeals to seek (1 Macc 7:12), pursue (Prov 15:9; 21:21; Sir 27:8), practice righteousness and justice (Hos 10:12; Jer 22:3; Ezek 45:9 ff.; 2 Sam 8:15). Also quite common are the mentions of the fruits of this justice: pardon for sins (Tob 12:8; 14:9), the way of life (Prov 12:28), and promises of reward: “The one who sows justice will have a guaranteed reward,”49 for “when one lives with justice, one finds grace with God” (Philo, Alleg. Interp. 3.77).

In the nt, we must immediately distinguish between the dikaiosynē taught by St. Paul and that of the evangelists and the non-Pauline epistles.50 In this last category of writings, all the occurrences are conformable to the lxx,51 always with a nuance befitting the “ethics” of the new covenant. When John the Baptist objected to baptizing Jesus with a baptism of repentance, the Master replied, “It is appropriate for us to fulfill all righteousness,”52 that is, to conform to God’s plan, what God has decided, what is pleasing to God. The beatitude of those who hunger after righteousness53 is the blessedness of moral integrity, the desire for spiritual goods; it is analogous to the beatitude of those “persecuted for the sake of righteousness” (Matt 5:10; 1 Pet 3:14), religious persecution of the disciples, whose moral conduct condemned pagan depravity. But there are different righteousnesses: “If your righteousness does not go beyond that of the scribes and Pharisees you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.”54 For them, righteousness was embodied in spectacular displays; but in the new covenant, it is the heart that counts: right intentions, and especially love. So there is a qualitative change. Justice/righteousness in the new kingdom means fulfilling God’s will freely and joyfully, which goes beyond (perisseuō) material obedience. This is even clearer in Matt 21:32—“John came to you in the way of righteousness and you did not believe in him,”55 whereas the publicans and the prostitutes came to be purified. Great sinners were made righteous by believing in the message of the prophet sent by God.

To say that “human wrath does not accomplish the justice/righteousness of God” (Jas 1:20, dikaiosynē theou; cf. Rom 10:3) means that it is foreign to the divine will and hence cannot be justice. The quotation of Gen 15:6—“Abraham believed God and this was imputed to him as righteousness”56—remains on the Jewish plane: the patriarch is judged by God as being holy in his conduct, so that a nuance of reward is conveyed. Likewise Heb 11:7—Noah “became an heir of righteousness according to faith” (cf. Rom 4:11, 13) and not according to works or through a legal system. Similarly, training through correction (paideia), which procures the “peaceable fruit of righteousness,”57 seems to internalize dikaiosynē; the “trainee” acquires this or that virtue as evidence of eternal salvation. This original nuance in the new covenant is found also at 1 Pet 2:24—Christ was crucified “so that we might live for righteousness/justice.” Life is transformed by faith and baptism, which make the Christian ready to do God’s will, able to serve him, and thus to be genuinely just/righteous, for “whoever fulfills righteousness is born of him” (1 John 2:29). In the new heavens and new earth “the justice/righteousness will dwell for which we wait as the fulfillment of his promise” (2 Pet 3:13). This eschatological righteousness is a perfection in which nothing is lacking; here it is almost synonymous with glory, God’s gift if not God himself.

There remain the Johannine usages of dikaiosynē, first in the sense of “trial”: the Paraclete “will convict the world of guilt with respect to righteousness/justice.”58 Like an advocate in an appeals court, the Holy Spirit will ask each person to make an individual assessment of the original judgment against Jesus: was he guilty or innocent? Everyone must take sides. The Paraclete will convict the original judges of injustice and will exalt the innocence of their convict. As for 1 John 2:29, this verse presupposes the Pauline theology: “Since you know that God is just/righteous, you know also that whoever practices justice/righteousness is born of him.” This practice is the whole of Christian ethics (cf. Rev 22:11) and means above all the exercise of brotherly love (1 John 3:10). But the way in which God’s righteousness is related to that of his children is remarkable: it is as divinely born ones that Christians resemble their Father. Those who are born of a righteous/just God cannot be other than truly righteous/just (cf. 1 John 3:7).

For St. Paul, dikaiosynē is a new and crucial chapter in soteriology.59 The former Pharisee eliminates the self-proclaimed righteousness obtained through observance of the law (dikaiosynē ek nomou),60 by the “works” that it prescribes (Gal 2:16; Rom 3:20; 4:2; Titus 3:5). This righteousness, after all, would be purely legal, a personal victory and the rightful property of the obedient person;61 but this dikaiosynē cannot give life (Gal 3:21) and is therefore worthless, no longer valid, because in the divine plan the law was intended to be no more than a pedagogue, a transitory institution (Gal 3:15–26). Otherwise “Christ died in vain” (Gal 2:21). But in fact Christ is “the end of the law (telos nomou) that righteousness might be given to whoever believes” (Rom 10:4). So a new dispensation is substituted,62 that of a life-giving justice/righteousness, a participation in God’s righteousness (the antithesis of personal human righteousness, Rom 10:3; 2 Cor 5:21). This righteousness is based on faith and is valid for all humanity (Rom 9:30ff.). In its very essence, therefore, this is no longer a human way of justification but justification through divine intervention. What then is this dikaiosynē theou?63 It is known by its manifestations, because it is essentially active, dynamic,64 communicating benefits proper to God, making, as it were, a new creation (2 Cor 5:17); and its goal is the justification of humans (Rom 3:25–26). This “righteousness/justice of God” is first of all a divine attribute (Rom 8:33, “it is God who justifies,” theos ho dikaiōn), notably with respect to his role in retributive justice;65 but it is seen especially as a merciful will that is gracious and forgiving (Titus 3:5). It is revealed in the cross of Christ, the source of salvation for all who believe:66 “Christ has become our righteousness” (Christos egenēthē dikaiosynē, 1 Cor 1:30; Rom 10:4). Sin is abolished (Gal 2:17; Rom 4:7). This is not a simple acquittal, a verdict of justification (Rom 8:33); this is the merciful justice of God, “who gives life to the dead and calls the nonexistent into existence” (Rom 4:17) and transforms the one who participates in Christ’s death and resurrection. He infuses the believer with a dikaiōsis zōēs (Rom 5:18), the infusion of a pneuma zōē dia dikaiosynēn (Rom 8:10; Gal 3:2, 5). It is consequently a gift received (dōrea, Rom 5:17), a real justice] righteousness (4:4–5) that a person possesses beginning in the present,67 thanks to Christ. “God made him who knew no sin to be sin for us, so that we might become the righteousness of God in him” (2 Cor 5:21).

Saving faith is precisely this acceptance and this confidence in God acting in the mystery of Christ, in whom the future of salvation is summed up (Rom 3:22). Justice/righteousness and faith are not identical; for it is not faith that justifies, but God who justifies through faith (cf. Lagrange, “La Justification selon saint Paul,” p. 140). In faith, a person appropriates Christ’s righteousness (Gal 2:17, the efficient cause of our own righteousness, thus becoming the “righteousness of God,” 2 Cor 5:21). Righteousness proceeds from faith, which is like a title for obtaining this gift from God. To talk about this relationship between faith and justice/righteousness, St. Paul uses the phrase ek pisteōs (“from or of faith,” Rom 5:1; Gal 3:24; this is man’s part; cf. Gal 3:8); dia pisteōs (“through faith,” Rom 3:30; with the genitive, dia refers to the active role of faith as used by God, Rom 3:22; 9:30; cf. Lagrange, ibid.); finally, the instrumental dative pistei (Rom 3:28; 5:2; cf. 5:20; Phil 1:27): a person is justified by means of faith, but the principal agent is God.

Understood thus, justice/righteousness by faith cannot be forensic. The sinner is transformed within, is prepared to life with God, prepared for eternal life (Rom 5:21; 8:10), granted a power (5:17) that allows him to triumph over sin (6:18ff.; 2 Cor 6:4), outfitted with the “weapons of justice/righteousness” (Rom 6:13; 2 Cor 6:7; Eph 6:14). Since the object of this initial justification is a living being, it must continue as an unending process;68 so in concrete terms it is identified with the Christian life (1 Pet 2:24; 1 John 3:10) and with sanctification.69

IV. Dikaioō.—The occurrences of this (relatively rare) verb in the secular literature shed no light on the biblical texts. In the literary documents, the predominant meaning is “judge to be good, appreciate, reckon to be just” and hence “pronounce personal judgment.”70 The ten or so occurrences in the papyri have the same meaning,71 but almost all have a legal sense: “the court’s verdict was that we should reimburse the capital.”72

In the lxx, the passive of dikaioō, translating the qal stem of the Hebrew verb ṣāḏaq, almost always means “be just,” as at Gen 38:26—“Tamar has been more in the right than I.”73 Good judges “pronounce the just just”74 and do not justify the guilty (Exod 23:7). This justice/righteousness consists in being in order, as by carrying out a vow (Sir 18:22); in being within one’s right (niphal of the Hebrew verb šāp̱aṯ, Tob 6:12, 14; cf. Add Esth 10:9); and especially in being “innocent, beyond reproach.”75 It is a gift given by God.76 Often dikaioō means “defend, excuse,”77 but this declaratory sense (2 Sam 15:4)—which is rather often legal—is purely literary, because it presupposes that no one can effectively justify the sinner78—except the Messiah: “My servant, the Just One, will justify the many (hiphil of ṣāḏaq); he will take on their iniquities” (Isa 53:11). Here the death of the servant expiates the sins of the people; to justify means to destroy sin, so that sinners recover a real innocence of soul.79 This heralds Pauline justification.

The Gospels use the aorist passive edikaiōthē in the same meaning as the lxx. In the parable about the recalcitrant children—representing people who refused to believe God’s message as communicated either by Jesus or John the Baptist—the Master concludes: “Wisdom has been justified by her works” (Matt 11:19) or “by all her children” (Luke 7:35). Far from blaming the precursor for his austerity or Jesus for his open-mindedness, the people and the publicans showed themselves to be teachable and conformed to the dispositions of divine wisdom. Thus they avenged and “justified” this wisdom, proclaiming the excellence and the authenticity of its providential interventions.80 The “children of wisdom,” truly wise people, prove through their adherence that the means used by God to carry out his merciful plan of salvation were effective, well adapted to their goal. The justification in Matt 12:37, which is declaratory (but with cause), is perfectly traditional,81 as is Matt 16:15, which denounces “those who pass themselves off as just before people” (hoi dikaiountes heautous) but whose assessment is at variance with God’s.82

The conclusion of the parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector, addressed to certain people who thought of themselves as just (hoti eisin dikaioi, Luke 18:9), uses the perfect passive participle dedikaiōmenos to express that the tax collector “went down to his house justified rather than the other (the Pharisee)” (verse 14) upon his return from the temple, thanks to his prayer and his humility.83 Here it is a question of interior justification, which is much more than a verdict of acquittal: God grants that this “sinner” becomes just, he makes him just. This is already the Pauline sense attested in the discourse at Pisidian Antioch: “Through him (Jesus), everyone who believes is justified (en toutō pas ho pisteuōn dikaioutai) from everything that you could not be justified from (aorist passive, dikaiōthēnai) by the law of Moses.”84

Several times St. Paul uses dikaioō in its forensic ot sense, “declare or acknowledge to be just,” especially when he is quoting the ot,85 but it would be wrong to extend this meaning to all the texts. In the first place, this would be to forget that “verbs in -oō mean to make whatever the root indicates. Thus dikaioō should properly mean ‘make just.’ This meaning is not found in secular Greek for rather natural reasons.”86 In the second place, it would overlook the fact that St. Paul, as a converted Pharisee, perceived as no one else did the opposition between the new covenant and the old covenant, law and grace, circumcision and baptism, and perhaps especially the inefficacy of the old legal dispensation compared to the efficacy and realism of the dispensation of salvation centered on the cross of Jesus. The consequence is a radical change in ideas concerning righteousness/justification, as is seen in the frequent linking of the verb “justify” with faith in Christ and in the explicit contrast between justification and works of the law; there is a different scheme or process for attributing justice/righteousness in the new covenant than in the old covenant. The apostle gives dikaioō a causative sense, as appears from Rom 3:24—“All have sinned and come short of the glory of God (cf. Rom 8:30; 2 Cor 3:18; 5:21); (henceforth) they are justified (present passive participle, dikaioumenoi) freely by his grace, through the redemption (apolytrōsis) that is in Jesus Christ.” God has shown his mercy, but not by pronouncing acquittal pure and simple; through Christ a price was paid, a ransom (lytron) with expiatory value (cf. verse 25: hilastērion), so that “sinners” have become just, have been made truly righteous.87 Another clear text is Rom 3:26—“to show his justice/righteousness (his salvific action), so that (it might be established that) he himself is just and that he justifies (present active participle, dikaiounta) the one who has faith in Jesus”: the just God communicates his justice/righteousness and makes just.88 Again: “We hold that a person is justified (present passive infinitive, dikaiousthai) by faith without works of the law”;89 “There is only one God, who will justify (future active indicative, dikaiōsei = will make just) the circumcised on the basis of faith and the uncircumcised by means of that same faith” (Rom 3:30).

The realism in this Christian justification is made explicit at Rom 5:1—“Having therefore been justified by faith (aorist passive participle, dikaiōthentes), let us maintain peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.”90 Whereas sinners were enemies of God, they have now “become righteous/just,” i.e., reconciled with God (5:10) in an enduring way (5:2) and have a loving relationship with a holy God in the peace of a purified heart. Such is the standing of the present Christian life. Believers are made so thoroughly just that they are sure of their future glorification: “Those whom God has called he has also justified (aorist active indicative, edikaiōsen), those whom he has justified he has also glorified (aorist, anticipating something that is certain, according to Lagrange)” (Rom 8:30). All these verbs are causative; all these acts of God connect to each other and are called by each other’s names. Justification is as real and as personal a gift as the gift of faith; the present state is as certain as the future glory.91 Finally, 1 Cor 6:11 is decisive: “You have been washed (at baptism), you have been sanctified, you have been justified (aorist passive indicative, edikaiōthēte) in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.” The three aorist verbs show that the events coincide; the two latter verbs in the passive express the reality of the interior change. E. B. Allo notes, “This is a classic passage against imputed righteousness.”

V. Dikaiōma.—Schrenk (TDNT, vol. 2, p. 219) correctly observes that the ending -ma indicates the result of an action, in this case the action expressed by dikaioō, “to justify.” Thus dikaiōma will mean “justification” in Rom 5:16, 18, where St. Paul contrasts the death sentence (katakrima) that followed Adam’s transgression (di’ henos paraptōmatos) with justification through Christ (di’ henos dikaiōmatos), justification that gives life (eis dikaiōsin zōēs)92 and is valid for all humankind. Humankind takes on a new religious “status,”93 not simply on the basis of God’s declaration, but because this justice/righteousness has become the property of former sinners who can take advantage of it.94

On the other hand, “God’s righteous decree” (to dikaiōma tou theou, Rom 1:32), “the requirements of the law” (ta dikaiōmata tou nomou, Rom 2:26, cf. 8:4), and “worship regulations” (dikaiōmata latreias, Heb 9:1, 10) have the common ot meaning “ordinance, regulation.”95 In accord with the ideal of Jewish piety, Zechariah and Elizabeth, “both just (dikaioi) before God, walked in all the commandments and regulations of the Lord” (Luke 1:6). It is more difficult to understand Rev 15:4—“All the people will see and bow down before you, because your justifications are manifest” (hoti ta dikaiōmata sou ephanerōthēsan). This could refer to the punishment of the ungodly,96 but more likely it refers to brilliant manifestations of divine sovereignty (cf. Bar 2:17—in Hades the dead do not return “glory and justice to the Lord”; verse 19).

VI. Dikaiōsis.—This rather rare substantive (unknown in Philo, Epictetus, and the papyri) normally means “that which is in accord with the right, the act of establishing justice,”97 but none of the secular usages shed light on “conferring of justice, act of justification” in Rom 4:25 and 5:18. In the first text: “Jesus our Lord was delivered because of our sins (to do away with them) and raised because of our justification (to obtain it for us, dia tēn dikaiōsin hēmōn)”;98 dia indicates the goal, the instrumental cause, “with a view to our salvation”; Christ’s resurrection is the efficient cause of our justification, for if at baptism the Christian dies with Christ on the cross (Rom 6:4), he enters the new life with Christ emerging from the tomb. Our life is a participation in his, the “life-giving spirit.”99 In Rom 5:18—“As through the trespass of one, condemnation fell on all people, so also the righteousness worked by one man (di’ henos dikaiōmatos, the state or work of righteousness) procures for all people (in solidarity with him) the justification that gives life (eis dikaiōsin zōēs).” This can be understood either as participation in the very life of God or as the existence that concretely carries out justice100 but necessarily depends on the infusion of grace; justification already means life, as with a fruit seed.

VII. Dikastēs.—This substantive is used only by St. Stephen in the nt (Acts 7:27, 35), and it is a quotation from Exod 2:14—“Who set you up as a chief and judge over us?” (archonta kai dikastēn, Hebrew šōp̱ēṭ). This association suggests that dikastēs is not exactly synonymous with kritēs: there are different kinds of judges. Dikastēs may refer to a magistrate who sits at a tribunal to pass judgment,101 but also to “elected judges” (Philo, Unchang. God 112; Husbandry 116), delegates,102 arbiters chosen to settle disputes,103 such as priests, whose duties include settling contested matters;104 and finally the conscience, and God, the heavenly judge.105

The office of judge is treated with the highest consideration.106 There are “royal judges,” like Dionysius, “king’s friend become politikon stratēgon” (SEG XXIII, 617, 4; cf. P.Dura 18, 10, 31; 19, 18; from ad 87/88). There are above all those eminent persons who have a top-level role in the city administration,107 who are members of a board or of commissions of the assembly charged with preparing for a festival or managing funds.108 Cities invite foreign judges to “settle disputed contracts”109 and honor them not only for the fairness of their decisions but also for their behavior.110 Here we may mention the biblical use of dikastēs for a person of high rank, a ruler,111 a leader of Israel (1 Sam 7:1–2), having official authority and the required powers. Artisans are incapable of these functions (Sir 38:33).

 

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 897
Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 5:48 AM

Another example:

ἁπλότης, ἁπλοῦς

haplotēs, simplicity, singleness, sincerity; haplous, morally whole, faithful

haplotēs, S 572; TDNT 1.386–387; EDNT 1.123–124; NIDNTT 3.571–572; MM 58; L&N 57.106, 88.44; BAGD 85–86 | haplous, S 573; TDNT 1.386; EDNT 1.123–124; NIDNTT 3.571; MM 58; L&N 23.132, 57.107; BDF §§45, 60(1), 61(2); BAGD 86

These are two terms that cannot be well understood in the nt except in light of the lxx. In classical Greek, “haplous is the opposite of diplous, meaning simple or single rather than double … sometimes in the moral sense of straight, without turning aside.”1 But in the ot, this adjective translates the Hebrew tām, signifying all that is whole (hence upright [French intègre—Tr.], perfect); then well made; and finally peaceful, and hence innocent. Tāmîm refers to all that is complete, finished, done; hence intact or undefiled, without fault; and finally irreproachable, exemplary, impeccable.2 This perfection, which the Vulgate calls simplicitas, is frequently associated with yāśār, expressing rectitude: that which corresponds to an objective norm; thus, in a physical sense, that which is straight, direct, unified; and in a moral sense that which is loyal, just, right.3 This union (Ps 25:21; 37:37) points out that the perfection-integrity of the just is characterized by an absolute rectitude of conscience and life. Furthermore, the models of the pious person, like Noah and Job (Gen 5:9; Job 1:1, 8) are presented as “perfect and upright,” they are seasoned, lacking in nothing, innocent and irreproachable.

This is not just a dictionary entry but an entire spirituality. This faultless innocence, this uncompromising rectitude, is blessed by God (Prov 2:7; 10:29; 11:20; 28:10) and is the way of salvation (Prov 28:18). It is the virtue of the servants of God (Deut 18:13; Ps 19:24; 25:21; Prov 13:6), or better, a deep-seated purpose, a condition of the soul. As opposed to duplicitous people, those with divided hearts, those who are simple have no other concern than to do the will of God, to observe his precepts; their whole existence is an expression of this disposition of heart, this rectitude: “Let us all die in our simplicity” (1 Macc 2:37). In the first century bc, haplotēs, so exalted in the Wisdom writings, is considered the supreme virtue of the patriarchs.4

It is not easy to define precisely the meaning of haplous in the outline of the logion of the two lights,5 which calls for checking the condition of this “lamp of the body,” the eye,6 because if it is “evil” (dark) it is unable to make out the exterior light of Christ; this would be blindness indeed, like that of a blind person facing the sun.7 If we take haplous and ponēros in a physical sense, they would mean respectively “healthy or normal” and “sick.” Thus Socrates called myopia a “defect of the eyes, ponēria ophthalmōn” (Plato, Hp. Mi. 374d), but this meaning is not biblical, and in secular Greek a healthy eye is normally called ophthalmos agathos; consequently, what we are dealing with is a Septuagintism. It is best to take the logion as a whole in a moral sense—the “darkened eye” in the sense of T. Issach. 4.6 (cf. T. Benj. 4.2), a clouded eye or depraved will. The eye is the organ for recognizing divinity: ho ophthalmos sou = to phōs to en soi (cf. Prov 20:27) = tous ophthalmous tēs kardias (Eph 1:18). The point here is probably unclouded loyalty,8 in the sense in which pure hearts will see God (Matt 5:8), but the deepest meaning is that of a simple soul, not parceled out, like that of a small child,9 oriented exclusively toward God. This integrity, this rigorousness of basic purpose, introduces one to the light, the world of God.10 The light is total and perfect; but if one’s outlook is evil, deficient because the heart is pulled in different directions (cf. Matt 6:21), the whole person abides in darkness (the world of Satan?). Simplicity is thus total involvement and the unreserved giving of the self.

These same connotations of generosity or liberality are to be understood in the verses about the gifts of the Macedonians and the Corinthians to the community at Jerusalem (2 Cor 8:2; 11:11, 13), and about gifts given by the charismatic, who gives not grudgingly but generously (ho metadidous en haplotēti, Rom 12:8). On the other hand, the nuance of integrity and uprightness come to the fore in 2 Cor 11:3—“I fear that just as the serpent lured Eve through his wiliness (en tē panourgia; cf. Gen 3:1) your thoughts might be corrupted (and abased) from the simplicity and purity that are fitting with respect to Christ.”11 But if slaves must obey their masters “in simplicity of heart” (Col 3:22; Eph 6:5), purity of intention and wholehearted devotion cannot be separated in their service. The Christian slave will want to obey orders faithfully and not balk at his duties. He works as a person in a position of trust and with real nobility.12

The meaning of the adverb haplōs (nt hapax) in Jas 1:5 cannot be determined with certainty: “God gives to all haplōs and does not reproach.”13 Given the last part of the sentence, it is tempting to translate haplōs “sincerely, without reservation or restriction.”14 But the meaning of the Vulgate, supported by the Peshitta, agrees better with the language of the lxx: God gives perfectly, i.e., with abandon. The papyri shed hardly any light,15 or rather they most often use haplōs, especially in the first century, to affirm a statement: “absolutely, quite plainly.”16 Contracting parties agree not to file any complaints whatsoever concerning debts, payments, stipulations, or “anything else at all.”17 Thus, in an act establishing ownership, “the declarer and his successors will not initiate any legal proceedings concerning the above-mentioned goods, nor for anything else, absolutely, in any manner.… For his part, Anthistia Cronous will not start legal proceedings against the declarer concerning any of the above stipulations (peri mēdenos haplōs pragmatos) … in any fashion (tropō mēdeni)” (P.Phil. 11.16, 21). In ad 38, emou mēthen haplōs lambanontos means “without receiving absolutely anything.”18 Consequently, the best translation of Jas 1:5 would appear to be “purely and simply,”19 without emphasizing one nuance or another, except that of pure gift.

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 3163
Dominick Sela | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 7:20 AM

Being the curious type I did two searches in my Library, one for any place Spicq is mentioned (left side), once in footnote text (right side). Look how many times Spicq is referenced!  This IMHO is a GREAT indication of the usefulness of a commentary!

Posts 897
Eric Weiss | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 7:50 AM

An evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of Spicq's commentary on Hebrews:

http://books.google.com/books?id=m_ibMxphF_MC&pg=PA23&lpg=PP1&dq=The+use+of+the+Old+Testament+in+Hebrews:+a+case+study+in+early+Jewish+Bible&output=html_text

If the link doesn't work, go to Google Books for

The use of the Old Testament in Hebrews: a case study in early Jewish Bible

by Susan E. Docherty. Spicq is discussed beginning on p. 23

Optimistically Egalitarian (Galatians 3:28)

Posts 8899
fgh | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 12:30 PM

Jacob Hantla:

Clifford Kvidahl:

Keep Smiling 4 Jesus :):

Wonder about interlinear format ? for French and English readers ?

Keep Smiling Smile

The French edition may be something to pursue if the English one does well.

Cliff

If you guys are doing the translation, an interlinear (at least on the sentence level) would be great...not necessary but a nice touch. I wouldn't personally benefit, but it would be very nice I'm sure for the bilingual and the scholar among us

No need for an interlinear, but just having the original, so that it can be linked, would be nice.

I bet that if you added the French version, announced that a French UI was on its way, and put the TOB and La Bible de Jérusalem on prepub, you could start taking some market shares in France. The Latin versions of the Summa and the Encyclicals, as well as original language resources, would be attractive also to many people who don't read English.

"The Christian way of life isn't so much an assignment to be performed, as a gift to be received."  Wilfrid Stinissen

Mac Pro OS 10.9.

Posts 93
Fabrice | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 2:23 PM

Yes, if it was possible to make it available in french !! that would be awesome :-)

Posts 138
LogosEmployee
Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 6:30 PM

Fabrice de Almeida:

Yes, if it was possible to make it available in french !! that would be awesome :-)

We are not opposed to producing a French edition at all. It would mean a separate conversation with Gabalda about permission. It is something that I would like to have as well.

Cliff

Posts 138
LogosEmployee
Clifford Kvidahl | Forum Activity | Replied: Tue, Mar 13 2012 6:34 PM

Fabrice de Almeida:

It's funny because we can't even find it in French and now it will be available in english! So this originally french work will now be more accessible for english speaking people than french speakers. hehe Don't miss this tremendous work and for that Logos price, it's unbeatable.

It is funny your should mention the unavailability of Spicq in French. I spent the better part of 6 years searching for these two volumes. A few years back I found a used copy of vol. 1. I searched for vol. 2 for ever, with no luck...until Sunday. I finally found a used copy, and believe you me I snatched that up real quick!

These are two incredibly difficult books to find. The first I got from an used bookstore in Germany, the second just Sunday from a used bookstore in France. If you have never seen these books they are not the best looking books. The paper is cracked and the pages are not cut. They are in some seriously bad condition. I keep vol. 1 in a giant zip lock bag, taking it out only when necessary. If I remember, I will try to post a picture of them here.

Cliff

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