Any thoughts on Zondervan Encyclopedia

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Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Posted: Sat, Mar 12 2022 12:52 PM

This set is $134 now. I think it’s been cheaper before at one point.  How good/useful is it: https://www.logos.com/product/5467/zondervan-encyclopedia-of-the-bible 

Thanks!

DAL

Posts 3541
David Taylor Jr | Forum Activity | Replied: Sat, Mar 12 2022 1:14 PM

Never used it.

Posts 37
Dave Palmer | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Mar 13 2022 8:51 AM

I personally like the Zondervan Encyclopedia set and find it to be useful. It is one of my 3 goto bible dictionaries alongside of the IVP and the Anchor Yale sets. I would then put the ISBE and the Baker Encyclopedias to be in my next tier of dictionaries.

The Zondervan Encyclopedias are not quite as academic AYBD or IVP, but the articles are nicely laid out and thorough. The Zondervan set also has more color pictures which are a perc. As far as price goes, it has been cheaper, but I am not sure if it has recently been cheaper. I purchased the set for considerably less back in 2016.

Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Mar 13 2022 9:43 AM

Thanks, Dave! I’ll put it in my wishlist for now 馃憤馃榿馃憣

Posts 1764
Allen Browne | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Mar 13 2022 4:28 PM

DAL:
This set is $134 now. I think it’s been cheaper before at one point.  How good/useful is it: https://www.logos.com/product/5467/zondervan-encyclopedia-of-the-bible

I used this 5-vol set (on paper) as my main Bible Dictionary for many years. Found it provided invaluable background information for preaching and Bible study. For example, the article on Exodus provided just the right amount of survey on the book's structure and background to get me reading in context.

The version Logos sells shows copyright date 2009, so they may have updated it. My old version is a bit dated now (i.e. lacking recent scholarship). So I've given the old hardback ZPEB away, and I'm using more specialized resources in Logos, turning to AYB or ISBE if I need a general purpose Bible Dictionary.

Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Replied: Sun, Mar 13 2022 11:21 PM

There’s an article on different ways to preserve wine.  Can someone please post part of it or all of it if it’s not too long?

Thanks!

DAL

Posts 2248
Kenneth Neighoff | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 14 2022 6:05 AM

DAL:

There’s an article on different ways to preserve wine.  Can someone please post part of it or all of it if it’s not too long?

Thanks!

DAL

I did a quick search of preserve near wine.  Had two hits:

skin. Biblical references to animal skins used for clothing go back to the narrative of Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:21). See dress; leather. Rebekah put the skins of kids on Jacob’s hands and neck so that he would feel rough, like Esau, to his blind father (Gen. 27:16). Animal skins were used also to manufacture leather bags for wine (Josh. 9:4 et al.). Jesus, in response to complaints that his disciples were not fasting, commented that people do not “pour new wine into old wineskins. If they do, the skins will burst, the wine will run out and the wineskins will be ruined. No, they pour new wine into new wineskins, and both are preserved” (Matt. 9:17; cf. Mk. 2:22; Lk. 5:37–38). New wine was still fermenting, and the expansion caused by the resulting gases was easily accommodated by a new stretchable bottle. As skin bottles grew old, however, they lost their elasticity, becoming hard and brittle; new wine would cause them to burst. There are some references to human diseases of the skin. That Job in his affliction suffered from smallpox is a good possibility. He was afflicted with sores from head to toe, to the extent that his friends could not recognize him (Job 2). The condition was very itchy, for he scraped himself with a piece of broken pottery. He commented, “my skin hardens, then breaks out again” (Job 7:5 NRSV). All this fits smallpox, although there are other possibilities. Israelite law addressed the problem of skin disorders (e.g., Lev. 13); see disease (sections on boil, itch, leprosy, scurvy). There are well-known proverbs concerning skin that come from the Bible. Job declared, “I have escaped by the skin of my teeth” (Job 19:20 NRSV). Jeremiah asked, “Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard its spots?” (Jer. 13:23).

Moisés Silva and Merrill Chapin Tenney, The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Q-Z (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corporation, 2009) 532. IV. Viticulture in Palestine. Viticulture and the production of wine was important in the ANE and is described in the Bible (see vine, vineyard). There are many references to the process of making wine in the Bible (Gen. 40:11; Deut. 18:4; Josh. 9:4; 1 Chr. 27:27; Ezek. 17:5–10). The vineyards were carefully cultivated and protected against vandalism by watchmen located in observation towers. No other plants were permitted to grow between the vines. An owner of a vineyard was exempt from military service at the time of the grape harvest in September, which was the season apparently for great festivity (Jer. 25:30; 48:33). The vintage is referred to in connection with the Feast of Booths (Deut. 16:13). Travelers were permitted to help themselves to the new wine and the poor could take what grapes remained on the ground, as they could with the harvest of all the crops. In the sabbatical year the vineyards, as in the case of all farmlands, were to lie fallow. The grapes were brought from the vineyards in baskets and were usually spread out for a few days in the sun, the effect of which was to increase their sugar content. The grapes were then placed in wine vats and trodden with bare feet. It seems to have been usual for several people to tread out the grapes together, which is the point of Isaiah’s statement about the Messiah treading the winepress alone (Isa. 63:3). The usual wine vat consisted of three sections, two rectangular or circular rock-hewn pits at different levels connected with a channel. The upper pit was the larger one and here the grapes were trodden, the juice accumulating in the lower vat. The upper vat was usually twice the size in area as the lower, but only about half as deep. The wine vats varied in size. Even after the appearance of mechanical winepresses, the wine from trodden grapes was preferred and continued to be produced. After the grapes were trodden, the husks that remained were pressed by means of a wooden plank, one end of which was secured to a socket in the side of the vat and the other end weighted with stones. Numbers of winepresses from Bible times have been discovered in the Holy Land and they vary in size and the number of vats. A winepress might have as many as four vats. The additional vats would allow for the settling of the must in the intermediate levels before the wine entered the final one. Usually the new wine was left in the vat to undergo the first fermentation, which took from four to seven days. It was then drawn or skimmed off (Hag. 2:16). If the vat had a spout, the wine was run off into jars or wineskins to complete the process of fermentation (Matt. 9:17). The whole period of fermentation would last from two to four months, at which time the wine would be ready for use. It would then be placed in smaller jars and skins. At this time the wine was strained through an earthenware, metal, or linen strainer to eliminate such things as grit and insects. Isaiah refers to this straining process when he mentions “wine on the lees well refined” (Isa. 25:6 KJV [Heb., š臅m膩rîm m臅zuqq膩qîm; NRSV, “well-aged wines strained clear”]; cf. Matt. 23:24). To aid in further maturing the wine and to guard against undesirable thickening on the lees, it was periodically poured from one vessel to another. Jeremiah has an allusion to this practice, “Moab has been at rest from youth, / like wine left on its dregs, / not poured from one jar to another—/ she has not gone into exile. / So she tastes as she did, / and her aroma is unchanged” (Jer. 48:11; cf. Zeph. 1:12). When the wine was refined and ready to be stored for long periods of time, it was poured in jars lined with pitch that were sealed and placed in the “wine cellars” (1 Chr. 27:27 NRSV). There apparently were no attempts made to preserve wine in an unfermented state. The Mishnah, for example, does not refer to any such preservation. Some scholars are of the opinion that preserving unfermented grape juice was virtually impossible in ancient times in Palestine (however, see the contrary arguments by Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, ch. 4).
Moisés Silva and Merrill Chapin Tenney, The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible, Q-Z (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corporation, 2009) 1086. If you had a specific article in mind let me know.
Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 14 2022 6:28 AM

One last question: Is the Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible the same as the Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible? It seems like the latter is the original one and the former just an updated version of the original; hence, the slight difference in name.

DAL

Posts 5189
Mattillo | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 14 2022 7:23 AM

DAL:

One last question: Is the Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible the same as the Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible? It seems like the latter is the original one and the former just an updated version of the original; hence, the slight difference in name.

DAL

I don't own that one but the front notes say it is revised from it

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The Zondervan encyclopedia of the Bible / Moisés Silva, revision editor; Merrill C. Tenney, general editor.—Rev. full-color ed.

p. cm.

Rev. ed. of: The Zondervan pictorial encyclopedia of the Bible.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 978-0-310-20973-7 (hardcover, printed)

ISBN 978-0-310-24136-2 (set)

1. Bible—Encyclopedias. I. Silva, Moisés. II. Tenney, Merrill Chapin, 1904–1985.

III. Zondervan pictorial encyclopedia of the Bible. IV. Title: Encyclopedia of the Bible.

BS440.Z63 2009

220.3—dc22 2009004956

Posts 5189
Mattillo | Forum Activity | Replied: Mon, Mar 14 2022 7:27 AM

wine and strong drink. Alcoholic beverages of various types.

I. Terminology. The usual Hebrew word for “wine,” the fermented juice of the grape, is yayin H3516 (Gen. 9:21 et al.); the Greek equivalent is oinos G3885 (Lk. 1:15 et al.). In certain contexts (e.g., the poetic statement in Isa. 16:10, “no one treads out wine at the presses”), the term can be used more generally without specific reference to the stage of fermentation, and proponents of total abstinence argue that both yayin and oinos may refer to either fermented or unfermented grape juice (see esp. S. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bibe: A Biblical Study on the Use of Alcoholic Beverages [1989]). Several words, however, were available to the biblical writers when referring to the juice extracted from grapes (see below), and if the distinction between fermented and unfermented juice had been (morally) important to the Israelites, it is difficult to understand why different terms or phrases were not used with some consistency to discriminate between the two stages (as is almost always done in English), or why the distinction between allowing the one and forbidding the other is never made explicit (contrast the explicit differentiation between leavened and unleavened bread in Exod. 12:15 et al.).

Another Hebrew word, tîrôš H9408, is often translated “new wine” (Gen. 27:28 et al., also rendered with oinos by the lxx) and possibly refers to must, that is, grape juice before and during fermentation; it is clear, however, that the tîrôš could be intoxicating (Hos. 4:11; cf. similarly Acts 2:13, which uses the Greek word for “new wine,” gleukos G1183). In addition, there are three poetic terms: (a) 士膩sîs H6747, which seems to be a near synonym of tîrôš (Amos 9:13 et al.; it too could be intoxicating, Isa. 49:26); (b) s艒be示 H6011 (Isa. 1:22 et al., though some think this term refers to beer made from grain; see HALOT, 2:738); and (c) 岣mer H2815, which apparently refers to wine while it is still fermenting (only Deut. 32:14 [NIV, “foaming”]; cf. 岣ツ僲ar H10271, the normal Aram. term for “wine,” Ezra 6:9 et al.).

Note should also be made of the expression kol-mišrat 士膬n膩bîm, “all juice of grapes,” one of the items forbidden to Nazirites (Num. 6:3). The word mišrâ H5489 occurs nowhere else and thus its precise meaning is uncertain; the phrase may refer in general to any grape extract (cf. NJPS, “anything in which grapes have been steeped”). Assuming that the reference is to unfermented grape juice, as most versions seem to take it, the question arises why this phrase was not used elsewhere. In particular, if the positive statements about yayin (see below, section III) have in view grape juice, why would the writers use a supposedly ambiguous term when mišrat 士膬n膩bîm or a similar phrase was available?

The Hebrew word translated “strong drink” by the KJV and other versions (NIV, “fermented drink” or “beer”) is š膿k膩r H8911 (Lev. 10:9 et al., derived from the verb š膩kar H8910, “to be/become drunk,” Gen. 9:21 et al.; Gk. sikera G4975, used in the lxx and Lk. 1:15, is a borrowing of the Aram. cognate šikr膩示). This word is used to denote any intoxicating drink made from any fruit or grain, and at least in the early period included wine (cf. Num. 28:7 with 28:14; in Isa. 5:11 it occurs in parallel with yayin referring to intoxicating beverages in general). Usually, however, the use of the term is restricted to intoxicants other than wine from grapes. It probably refers to beer made from barley. Both š膿k膩r and yayin were forbidden to Nazirites (Num. 6:3: cf. Jdg. 13:4714Lk. 1:15) and also to priests when they entered the Tent of Meeting (Lev. 10:9). The book of Proverbs advises, “Wine is a mocker and beer a brawler; / whoever is led astray by them is not wise” (Prov. 20:1; cf. 31:46). When Eli accuses Hannah of being intoxicated she responds, “I have not been drinking wine or beer” (1 Sam. 1:15).

II. Mixed wine. In the OT period, there is some evidence that diluting wine with water was considered undesirable (Isa. 1:22, where the mixture is symbolical of spiritual adulteration). In the Greek and Roman periods wine was often mixed with water, and some considered this mixture to be healthier and more enjoyable: “it is harmful to drink wine alone, or, again, to drink water alone, while wine mixed with water is sweet and delicious and enhances one’s enjoyment” (2 Macc. 15:39; it should be recalled that water could be unsafe to drink). Red wine was generally considered to be better and stronger than white wine (cf. Prov. 23:31). The wines of Lebanon (Hos. 14:7) and of Helbon (Ezek. 27:18) may have been white wines. The vineyards of Eshcol (prob. near Hebron) were famous for their large clusters of grapes (Num. 13:23). Samaria was the center of viticulture (Jer. 31:5Mic. 1:6), but the Ephraimites had the reputation for being heavy wine drinkers (Isa. 28:1).

The Song of Solomon speaks of “spiced [reqa岣 H8380] wine” (Cant. 8:2). This phrase represented a variety of wines referred to as mixed or mingled wine. They were prepared with different kinds of herbs after the manner of the non-Israelite peoples of the ANE and were much more intoxicating than the regular wine. This fact made it popular at banquets and festive occasions (Prov. 9:25Isa. 5:22; Heb. verb m膩sak H5007“to mix”). The biblical injunctions against its misuse are clear (Prov. 23:29–30; Heb. noun mims膩k H4932). When wine was mixed with myrrh, it was used as a drug for its anaesthetic and stupefying effects. It was this that was offered to Jesus at the time of his crucifixion (Matt. 27:34Mk. 15:23).

The rabbinical writers refer to several mixtures of wine that were known in Palestine and throughout the ANE. There was a mixture made of old wine with very clear water and balsam which was used especially after bathing. Use was also made of a raisin wine and a wine mixed with a sauce of oil and garum. A popular mixed wine was one mixed with honey and pepper, and recommended by the rabbis was a special emetic wine taken before a meal. There were many other mixtures of wine. Good vinegar was made by mixing barley in the wine.

III. Biblical attitudes to the use of wine. The attitude reflected throughout the Bible to the use of wine as a beverage is accurately expressed by Jesus the Son of Sirach, “Wine drunk at the proper time and in moderation / is rejoicing of heart and gladness of soul. / Wine drunk to excess leads to bitterness of spirit, / to quarrels and stumbling” (Sir. 31:28–29). Its use was universal except in the case of the priest when ministering in the sanctuary, the Nazirites, and the Recabites, in which instances its use was prohibited. There is also, however, a constant awareness of the danger of incontinence in the use of wine, and this is denounced as sinful (Prov. 20:123:29–35Isa. 5:112228:7–8Hos. 4:11). Apparently the principle to be followed in the use of wine is that of moderation, consonant with Paul’s rule of conduct as formulated in 1 Cor. 8:8–13 and Rom. 14:13–21.

Wine receives special commendation in the Bible. There is reference to the “wine that gladdens the heart of man” (Ps. 104:15; cf. Jdg. 9:13Eccl. 10:19). Used metaphorically wine represents the essence of goodness. The drinking of wine was sometimes accompanied by singing (Isa. 24:9). The desirable wife is compared to “a fruitful vine within your house” (Ps. 128:3). The blessing of wine is illustrated by the figure in which Israel is compared to a vine God brought from Egypt and planted in Canaan, where “it took root and filled the land,” sending its boughs as far W as the Mediterranean and as far E as the Euphrates (Ps. 80:8–11).

Prosperity was sometimes symbolized by an abundance of wine, as when Jacob blessed Judah saying that “he will wash his garments in wine / his robes in the blood of grapes” (Gen. 49:11). A time of peace and affluence is described as a situation in which every person dwells “under his vine and under his fig tree” (1 Ki. 4:25). Isaiah uses wine as a symbol of spiritual blessing (Isa. 55:1–2), and it is extolled in such passages as Eccl. 10:19. It appears that a temperate use of wine is not reprehensible (Zech. 10:7). References to wine in the Bible make it clear that its use was a common affair and a part of the regular diet (Jdg. 19:191 Sam. 16:202 Chr. 11:11).

On the other hand, there are repeated warnings in the Scriptures against the intemperate use of wine. See drunkenness. Isaiah warns “those who rise early in the morning / to run after their drinks, / who stay up late at night / till they are inflamed with wine” (Isa. 5:11; cf. v. 22). He condemns the priests and the prophets who “stagger from beer and are befuddled with wine” (28:7) and the shepherds who “lack understanding” because they say, “Come … let me get wine! / Let us drink our fill of beer” (56:11–12). Some of the strongest warnings against intemperance are in the book of Proverbs: “Wine is a mocker and beer a brawler” (Prov. 20:1); “whoever loves wine and oil will never be rich” (21:17; cf. 23:20–21); “Do not gaze at wine when it is red, / when it sparkles in the cup, / when it goes down smoothly” (23:31). This is followed by a description of the hallucinations that follow immoderate drinking (23:32–34). Micah chides the people of his time for preferring a preacher who claims, “I will prophesy for you plenty of wine and beer” (Mic. 2:11). Habakkuk says that wine is treacherous and suggests that its intemperate use is characteristic of a person who has other character weaknesses (Hab. 2:5). The real undesirable possibilities in the abuse of wine led to the prohibitions against its use by Nazirites and also by priests when performing their duties (Lev. 10:9Num. 6:3; Ezek. 44:21).

A winepress at Masada.

There is no direct or absolute prohibition of the use of wine in the NT. The moderate and appropriate use of wine is recommended to Timothy by Paul, “Stop drinking only water, and use a little wine because of your stomach and your frequent illnesses” (1 Tim. 5:23). The intemperate use of wine is condemned in the NT just as it is in the OT. The Christian should “not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery” (Eph. 5:18). Christians should avoid living like non-Christians who are characterized as practicing drunkenness among their other vices (1 Pet. 4:3). Leaders in the church are exhorted to practice temperance (1 Tim. 3:38). On one occasion Paul suggests total abstinence if the use of wine (or meat) is a stumbling block to another (Rom. 14:21cf. 1 Cor. 8:13).

The view that total abstinence is required by Scripture is difficult to reconcile with the fact that the biblical warnings focus on the excessive use (or misuse) of wine. For exampleProv. 23:20 (referring obviously to fermented juice) puts wine in the same category as meat, “Do not join those who drink too much wine / or gorge themselves on meat” (cf. Rom. 14:21). Priests were forbidden to drink wine or strong drink specifically when ministering in the sanctuary (Lev. 10:9), clearly implying that alcoholic drinks were used on other occasions. Similarly, the requirement that deacons should not indulge in or be attached to “much wine” (oin艒 poll艒1 Tim. 3:8) makes little sense if in fact Christians are not allowed to drink wine at all.

IV. Viticulture in Palestine. Viticulture and the production of wine was important in the ANE and is described in the Bible (see vine, vineyard). There are many references to the process of making wine in the Bible (Gen. 40:11Deut. 18:4Josh. 9:41 Chr. 27:27Ezek. 17:5–10). The vineyards were carefully cultivated and protected against vandalism by watchmen located in observation towers. No other plants were permitted to grow between the vines. An owner of a vineyard was exempt from military service at the time of the grape harvest in September, which was the season apparently for great festivity (Jer. 25:3048:33). The vintage is referred to in connection with the Feast of Booths (Deut. 16:13). Travelers were permitted to help themselves to the new wine and the poor could take what grapes remained on the ground, as they could with the harvest of all the crops. In the sabbatical year the vineyards, as in the case of all farmlands, were to lie fallow.

The grapes were brought from the vineyards in baskets and were usually spread out for a few days in the sun, the effect of which was to increase their sugar content. The grapes were then placed in wine vats and trodden with bare feet. It seems to have been usual for several people to tread out the grapes together, which is the point of Isaiah’s statement about the Messiah treading the winepress alone (Isa. 63:3). The usual wine vat consisted of three sections, two rectangular or circular rock-hewn pits at different levels connected with a channel. The upper pit was the larger one and here the grapes were trodden, the juice accumulating in the lower vat. The upper vat was usually twice the size in area as the lower, but only about half as deep. The wine vats varied in size. Even after the appearance of mechanical winepresses, the wine from trodden grapes was preferred and continued to be produced.

After the grapes were trodden, the husks that remained were pressed by means of a wooden plank, one end of which was secured to a socket in the side of the vat and the other end weighted with stones. Numbers of winepresses from Bible times have been discovered in the Holy Land and they vary in size and the number of vats. A winepress might have as many as four vats. The additional vats would allow for the settling of the must in the intermediate levels before the wine entered the final one. Usually the new wine was left in the vat to undergo the first fermentation, which took from four to seven days. It was then drawn or skimmed off (Hag. 2:16). If the vat had a spout, the wine was run off into jars or wineskins to complete the process of fermentation (Matt. 9:17). The whole period of fermentation would last from two to four months, at which time the wine would be ready for use. It would then be placed in smaller jars and skins. At this time the wine was strained through an earthenware, metal, or linen strainer to eliminate such things as grit and insects. Isaiah refers to this straining process when he mentions “wine on the lees well refined” (Isa. 25:6 KJV [Heb., š臅m膩rîm m臅zuqq膩qîmNRSV, “well-aged wines strained clear”]; cf. Matt. 23:24).

To aid in further maturing the wine and to guard against undesirable thickening on the lees, it was periodically poured from one vessel to another. Jeremiah has an allusion to this practice, “Moab has been at rest from youth, / like wine left on its dregs, / not poured from one jar to another—/ she has not gone into exile. / So she tastes as she did, / and her aroma is unchanged” (Jer. 48:11; cf. Zeph. 1:12). When the wine was refined and ready to be stored for long periods of time, it was poured in jars lined with pitch that were sealed and placed in the “wine cellars” (1 Chr. 27:27 NRSV). There apparently were no attempts made to preserve wine in an unfermented state. The Mishnah, for example, does not refer to any such preservation. Some scholars are of the opinion that preserving unfermented grape juice was virtually impossible in ancient times in Palestine (however, see the contrary arguments by Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, ch. 4).

V. Uses of wine in the biblical world. Wine was universally used in the ANE in libation offerings to the gods of paganism. The Hebrews were constantly warned against becoming involved in these sacrifices to foreign gods (Deut. 32:37–38Isa. 57:665:11Jer. 7:1819:13). The “drink offerings” which sometimes were a part of the Levitical sacrifices were of wine (Exod. 29:40Lev. 23:13Num. 15:71028:14). Worshipers customarily brought wine among other requirements when they went to offer sacrifice (1 Sam. 1:2410:38). A supply of wine was kept in the temple for sacrificial purposes (1 Chr. 9:29).

Besides its customary use, wine was important in various special occasions and for particular reasons. It was used for medicinal purposes, for example, to revive the faint (2 Sam. 16:2), and as a sedative “to those who are in anguish” (Prov. 31:6). It was the custom in Talmudic times to give ten cups of wine to mourners (b. Ketubbot 8b; later this quantity of wine was reduced). Paul’s prescription of “a little wine” for various ailments (1 Tim. 5:23) was widely practiced. The rabbis used a saying, “At the head of all medicine am I, Wine; only where there is no wine are drugs required” (b. Baba Batra 58b). It was used with oil in the dressing of wounds of the man who had fallen among robbers (Lk. 10:34).

Wine was also used at special occasions such as banquets. At the great banquet given by King Ahasuerus (XerxesEsth. 1:37–8), the wine given to each guest was, according to Jewish tradition, from the king’s home province and of the vintage of the year of his birth. The Hebrew word for “feast” or “banquet” is mišteh H5492, literally, “a drinking” (from the verb š膩tâ H9272, “to drink”). Wine also figures prominently as a desirable gift for important people, as when David received “skins of wine” from Abigail (1 Sam. 25:18) and Ziba (2 Sam. 16:1). Because of its importance in every area of the life of Palestine, it was inevitable that wine should become an important commodity in business and commerce. When Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem, he paid Hiram king of Tyre, among other things, 20,000 baths (1 bath equaled almost 6 gallons) for his help.

The use of wine has been a part of religious ceremonies and festive occasions in the Jewish home and in the synagogue throughout Hebrew history. Viticulture soon became the most important agricultural activity in Palestine in the colonies established by Zionism. The cellars of the Rothchilds at Rishon le-Ziyyon controlled almost the entire produce of the Zionist colonies and was distributed through the Carmel Wine Company in all parts of Europe, Russia, and the United States. The 1904 vintage in the Rothchild cellars was more than 7,000,000 bottles, of which 200,000 went to Warsaw. The income of this trade in wine was of primary importance for the early economy of the Jewish homeland. During the period of prohibition in the United States (1920–33) the production and sale of wine for sacramental purposes was permitted by the federal government. Orthodox rabbis insisted upon the use of wine, although Conservative and Reform rabbis in the country held, on the basis of Talmudic law, that for Jewish ritual grape juice could be used instead of wine.

(See further M. Jastrow, Jr., in JAOS 33 [1913]: 180–92; H. F. Lutz, Viticulture and Brewing in the Ancient Orient [1922]; A. C. Haddad, Palestine Speaks [1936], 60–67; C. T. Seltman, Wine in the Ancient World [1957]; E. Ferguson in Restoration Quarterly 13 [1970]: 141–53; K. L. Gentry, Jr., The Christian and Alcoholic Beverages: A Biblical Perspective [1986]; P. E. McGovern et al., eds., The Origins and Ancient History of Wine [1996]; C. E. Walsh, The Fruit of the Vine: Viticulture in Ancient Israel [2000]; R. Phillips, A Short History of Wine [2000]; P. E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture [2003]; ISBE rev. [1979–88], 4:1068–72.)

Posts 172
Jerome Smith | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Mar 18 2022 11:15 AM

In reference to preserving wine, the Logos resource Bible Wines gives a thorough discussion of how it was done.

Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Mar 18 2022 5:58 PM

I was looking for the CATO, De Agri Cultura quote but I guess it got removed in the revised version because the article on preserving wine mentioned the Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary which in essence would be the condensed version of the Pictorial Encyclopedia.  The quote reads, “In Zondervan’s Pictorial Bible Dictionary under this we read, “Means for preserving grape-juice were well known:  Cato, De Agri Cultura CXX has this recipe. “If you wish to have Must (grape-juice) all year, put grape-juice in an amphora and seal the cork with pitch; sink it in a fishpond.  After 30 days take it out.  It will be grape-juice for a whole year.”

Maybe someone can find the exact location of that quote outside of the dictionary and/or encyclopedia?

Thanks!

DAL

Ps. Samuele Bacchiocchi has a book on Wine in the Bible, but I don’t think Logos has it.

Posts 666
Roy | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Mar 18 2022 6:49 PM

Try this...

https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cato/De_Agricultura/G*.html 

:

[link to original Latin text] 119 1 Recipe for a confection of green, ripe, and mottled olives. Remove the stones from green, ripe, and mottled olives, and season as follows: chop the flesh, and add oil, vinegar, coriander, cummin, fennel, rue, and mint. Cover with oil in an earthen dish, and serve.

[link to original Latin text] 120 1 If you wish to keep grape juice through the whole year, put the grape juice in an amphora, seal the stopper with pitch, and sink in the pond. Take it out after thirty days; it will remain sweet the whole year.

[link to original Latin text] 121 1 Recipe for must cake: Moisten 1 modius of wheat flour with must; add anise, cummin, 2 pounds of lard, 1 pound of cheese, and the bark of a laurel twig. When you have made them into cakes, put bay leaves under them, and bake.

some place around page 107-109

Posts 9170
DAL | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Mar 18 2022 7:22 PM

Thanks Roy!

Posts 666
Roy | Forum Activity | Replied: Fri, Mar 18 2022 7:49 PM

DAL:

Thanks Roy!

You are most welcome. I don't know if this would be of interest to you but I found this as well...

:

The Time of the Wedding William Hendriksen argued that the timing of the wedding, between October and May, ruled out that the oinos served at this wedding could “be anything else but fermented grape-juice.” This is based on the assumption that there was no way to keep juice fresh. However, Columella gives instructions on the preservation of fresh juice for a year by sealing it off and submerging it under cool water for forty days. Similarly, Cato noted, “If you wish to keep grape juice through the whole year, put the grape juice in an amphora, seal the stopper with pitch, and sink in the pond. Take it out after thirty days; it will remain sweet the whole year.” Additional methods included boiling the fresh juice down to paste and reconstituting it with water when ready to drink. Columella explained in great length how boiled-down must was used to preserve wine: “Let us be mindful to preserve our wine with boiled-down must of a year old, the soundness of which has been already tested.” Since there were ways to preserve grape juice from fermentation, then the time of the wedding does not demand that the oinos be fermented. Further, Hendriksen may also be incorrect in assuming that the grape harvest concluded by October. Pliny mentions grapes that ripen after the frost.

Wayne Cornett, “The Product of Jesus’ First Miracle Considered Practically, Exegetically, and Theologically,” The Journal of Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary 8 (2021): 45–46.

https://app.logos.com/books/LLS%3AJMABTS08/articles/CH4.4?searchHighlights=133636,13,-1 

If you have the journal resource the Columella info had this footnote "Columella 12, 29, 1." and the Cato info had this footnote "Cato, On Agriculture, trans. William Davis Hooper (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 120."

Sorry that the web app does not copy footnotes well. That second footnote is what led me to do a google search and find the info I posted earlier.

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